Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 808234, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/808234
Review Article

Nanotechnological Advances in Cutaneous Medicine

Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Mawson Institute, Division of ITEE, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide SA5095, Australia

Received 4 September 2013; Accepted 27 October 2013

Academic Editor: Krasimir Vasilev

Copyright © 2013 Jessica E. Jackson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. J. Singer and R. A. F. Clark, “Cutaneous wound healing,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 10, pp. 738–746, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Silacci, L. Mazzolai, C. Gauci, N. Stergiopulos, H. L. Yin, and D. Hayoz, “Gelsolin superfamily proteins: key regulators of cellular functions,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 61, no. 19-20, pp. 2614–2623, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Werner and R. Grose, “Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 835–870, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Broughton II, J. E. Janis, and C. E. Attinger, “The basic science of wound healing,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 117, no. 7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. E. Jackson, Z. Kopecki, D. H. Adams, and A. J. Cowin, “Flii neutralizing antibodies improve wound healing in porcine preclinical studies,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 523–536, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. S. Boateng, K. H. Matthews, H. N. E. Stevens, and G. M. Eccleston, “Wound healing dressings and drug delivery systems: a review,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 2892–2923, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Jeon, S. Y. Yang, and J. K. Kim, “Functional nanoporous membranes for drug delivery,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 30, pp. 14814–14834, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. L. Vaccari, D. Canton, N. Zaffaroni, R. Villa, M. Tormen, and E. di Fabrizio, “Porous silicon as drug carrier for controlled delivery of doxorubicin anticancer agent,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 83, no. 4–9, pp. 1598–1601, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Solanki, J. D. Kim, and K.-B. Lee, “Nanotechnology for regenerative medicine: nanomaterials for stem cell imaging,” Nanomedicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 567–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Polarz and B. Smarsly, “Nanoporous Materials,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 581–612, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Gultepe, D. Nagesha, S. Sridhar, and M. Amiji, “Nanoporous inorganic membranes or coatings for sustained drug delivery in implantable devices,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 305–315, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Engel, A. Michiardi, M. Navarro, D. Lacroix, and J. A. Planell, “Nanotechnology in regenerative medicine: the materials side,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. E. Lane, “Nanoparticles and the skin applications and limitations,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 709–716, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. P. Zhong, Y. Z. Zhang, and C. T. Lim, “Tissue scaffolds for skin wound healing and dermal reconstruction,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 510–525, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Agrawal, K. C. Petkar, and K. K. Sawant, “Development, evaluation and clinical studies of Acitretin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 401, no. 1-2, pp. 93–102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Kimura, Y. Kawano, H. Todo, Y. Ikarashi, and K. Sugibayashi, “Measurement of skin permeation/penetration of nanoparticles for their safety evaluation,” Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1476–1486, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Wu, W. Liu, C. Xue et al., “Toxicity and penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. C. Watkinson, A. Bunge, Hadgraft, and M. Lane, “Nanoparticles do not penetrate human skin-a theoretical perspective,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1943–1946, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. J.-Y. Fang, C.-L. Fang, C.-H. Liu, and Y.-H. Su, “Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC),” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 633–640, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Z. Mei, H. Chen, T. Weng, Y. Yang, and X. Yang, “Solid lipid nanoparticle and microemulsion for topical delivery of triptolide,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Puglia and F. Bonina, “Lipid nanoparticles as novel delivery systems for cosmetics and dermal pharmaceuticals,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 429–441, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Lademann, H. Richter, M. C. Meinke et al., “Drug delivery with topically applied nanoparticles: science fiction or reality,” Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 36, no. 4–6, pp. 227–233, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Patzelt and J. Lademann, “Drug delivery to hair follicles,” Expert Opin Drug Deliv, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 787–797, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  24. R. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Nakamura, W. Mehnert, H. C. Korting, K. D. Kramer, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Glucocorticoid entrapment into lipid carriers-characterisation by parelectric spectroscopy and influence on dermal uptake,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 493–502, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  25. L. B. Jensen, L. B. Jensen, E. Magnussson et al., “Corticosteroid solubility and lipid polarity control release from solid lipid nanoparticles,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 390, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. Zhang and E. Smith, “Percutaneous permeation of betamethasone 17valerate incorporated in lipid nanoparticles,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 896–903, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. P. Schlupp, P. Schlupp, T. Blaschke et al., “Drug release and skin penetration from solid lipid nanoparticles and a base cream: a systematic approach from a comparison of three glucocorticoids,” Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 199–209, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. Puglia, R. Filosa, A. Peduto et al., “Evaluation of alternative strategies to optimize ketorolac transdermal delivery,” Aaps Pharmscitech, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. E61–E69, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Jain, W. T. Yap, and D. J. Irvine, “Synthesis of protein-loaded hydrogel particles in an aqueous two-phase system for coincident antigen and CpG oligonucleotide delivery to antigen-presenting cells,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 2590–2600, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  30. K. Bhaskar, J. Anbu, V. Ravichandiran, V. Venkateswarlu, and Y. M. Rao, “Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 8, article 6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. U. Munster, C. Nakamura, A. Haberland et al., “RU, 58841-myristate prodrug development for topical treatment of acne and androgenetic alopecia,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 8–12, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  32. Štecová, J, W. Mehnert, T. Blaschke et al., “Cyproterone acetate loading to lipid nanoparticles for topical acne treatment: particle characterisation and skin uptake,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 991–1000, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. G. A. Castro, R. L. Oréfice, J. M. Vilela, M. S. Andrade, and L. A. Ferreira, “Development of a new solid lipid nanoparticle formulation containing retinoic acid for topical treatment of acne,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 395–407, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. R. Bhalekar, V. Pokharkar, A. Madgulkar, N. Patil, and N. Patil, “Preparation and evaluation of miconazole nitrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 289–296, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  35. V. Sanna, E. Gavini, M. Cossu, G. Rassu, and P. Giunchedi, “Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as carriers for the topical delivery of econazole nitrate: in-vitro characterization, ex-vivo and in-vivo studies,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1057–1064, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. C. Lin, P. Dollé, L. Ryckebüsch et al., “Endogenous retinoic acid regulates cardiac progenitor differentiation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 107, no. 20, pp. 9234–9239, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  37. P. V. Pople and K. K. Singh, “Targeting tacrolimus to deeper layers of skin with improved safety for treatment of atopic dermatitis,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 398, no. 1, pp. 165–178, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Silva, D. Santos, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Minoxidil-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): characterization and rheological behaviour of topical formulations,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 177–182, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  39. C. Puglia, M. G. Sarpietro, F. Bonina, F. Castelli, M. Zammataro, and S. Chiechio, “Development, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of benzocaine- and lidocaine-loaded nanostructrured lipid carriers,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1892–1899, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. Mittal, A. S. Raber, and S. Hansen, “Particle based vaccine formulations for transcutaneous immunization,” Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol. 9, no. 9, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  41. A. Mittal et al., “Non-invasive delivery of nanoparticles to hair follicles: a perspective for transcutaneous immunization,” Vaccine, vol. 31, no. 34, pp. 3442–3451, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. S. Gall and R. E. Kalb, “Infl iximab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis,” Biologics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 115–124, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Chen, L. Wang, Q. Yu et al., “Anti-HER2 antibody and ScFvEGFR-conjugated antifouling magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting and magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3781–3794, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. H. Abouzeid, N. R. Patel, I. M. Rachman, S. Senn, and V. P. Torchilin, “Anti-cancer activity of anti-GLUT1 antibody-targeted polymeric micelles co-loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 994–1000, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  45. H. Cho, R. Magid, D. C. Danila, T. Hunsaker, E. Pinkhassik, and K. A. Hasty, “Theranostic Immunoliposomes for Osteoarthritis,” Nanomedicine, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. Y. Zhao, D. Y. Alakhova, and A. V. Kabanov, “Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. In press.
  47. J. B. Wright, K. Lam, and R. E. Burrell, “Wound management in an era of increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance: a role for topical silver treatment,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 572–577, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. C. Robson, “Wound infection: a failure of wound healing caused by an imbalance of bacteria,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 637–650, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. W. Alexander, “History of the medical use of silver,” Surgical Infections, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 289–292, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. Sondi and B. Salopek-Sondi, “Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 275, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. S. Atiyeh, M. Costagliola, S. N. Hayek, and S. A. Dibo, “Effect of silver on burn wound infection control and healing: review of the literature,” Burns, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 139–148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Rai, A. Yadav, and A. Gade, “Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 76–83, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Tian, K. K. Y. Wong, C.-M. Ho et al., “Topical delivery of silver nanoparticles promotes wound healing,” ChemMedChem, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 129–136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. B. Lansdown, “Silver. I: its antibacterial properties and mechanism of action,” Journal of wound care, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 125–130, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Arora, J. Jain, J. M. Rajwade, and K. M. Paknikar, “Cellular responses induced by silver nanoparticles: in vitro studies,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 93–100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. B. Wright, K. Lam, D. Hansen, and R. E. Burrell, “Efficacy of topical silver against fungal burn wound pathogens,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 344–350, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Dunn and V. Edwards-Jones, “The role of Acticoat with nanocrystalline silver in the management of burns,” Burns, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. S1–S9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. Khundkar, C. Malic, and T. Burge, “Use of Acticoat dressings in burns: what is the evidence?” Burns, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 751–758, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Huang, X. Li, Z. Liao et al., “A randomized comparative trial between Acticoat and SD-Ag in the treatment of residual burn wounds, including safety analysis,” Burns, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. Ülkür, O. Oncul, H. Karagoz, E. Yeniz, and B. Çeliköz, “Comparison of silver-coated dressing (Acticoat), chlorhexidine acetate 0.5% (Bactigrass), and fusidic acid 2% (Fucidin) for topical antibacterial effect in methicillin-resistant Staphylococci-contaminated, full-skin thickness rat burn wounds,” Burns, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 874–877, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Maneerung, S. Tokura, and R. Rujiravanit, “Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial wound dressing,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A.-R. C. Lee, H. Leem, J. Lee, and K. C. Park, “Reversal of silver sulfadiazine-impaired wound healing by epidermal growth factor,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 4670–4676, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. H. Demling and L. Desanti, “The role of silver in wound healing. Part 1: effects of silver on wound management,” Wounds, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 4–15, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  64. J. P. Marshall II and R. P. Schneider, “Systemic argyria secondary to topical silver nitrate,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 113, no. 8, pp. 1077–1079, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. Myerson Fisher, E. Marsh, and R. Lazova, “Scar-localized argyria secondary to silver sulfadiazine cream,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 730–732, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. Chaby, V. Viseux, J. F. Poulain, B. De Cagny, J. P. Denoeux, and C. Lok, “Topical silver sulfadiazine-induced acute renal failure,” Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie, vol. 132, no. 11, part 1, pp. 891–893, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. Trop, M. Novak, S. Rodl, B. Hellbom, W. Kroell, and W. Goessler, “Silver-coated dressing acticoat caused raised liver enzymes and argyria-like symptoms in burn patient,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 648–652, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. Puglia and F. Bonina, “Lipid nanoparticles as novel delivery systems for cosmetics and dermal pharmaceuticals,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 429–441, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Schäfer-Korting, W. Mehnert, and H.-C. Korting, “Lipid nanoparticles for improved topical application of drugs for skin diseases,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 427–443, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A.O. Acne, “Pathological mechanisms of acne with special emphasis on Propionibacterium acnes and related therapy,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 241–248, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  71. W. A. van Vloten, C. W. van Haselen, E. J. van Zuuren, C. Gerlinger, and R. Heithecker, “The effect of 2 combined oral Contraceptives containing either drospirenone or cyproterone acetate on acne and seborrhea,” Cutis, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 2–15, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. Štecová, W. Mehnert, T. Blaschke et al., “Cyproterone acetate loading to lipid nanoparticles for topical acne treatment: particle characterisation and skin uptake,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 991–1000, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J.-H. Saurat, “Retinoids and psoriasis: novel issues in retinoid pharmacology and implications for psoriasis treatment,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. S2–S6, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Pardeike, A. Hommoss, and R. H. Müller, “Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 366, no. 1-2, pp. 170–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. A. Shah, A. A. Date, M. D. Joshi, and V. B. Patravale, “Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of tretinoin: potential in topical delivery,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 345, no. 1-2, pp. 163–171, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. K. Gupta, M. T. Goldfarb, C. N. Ellis, and J. V. Voorhees, “Side-effect profile of acitretin therapy in psoriasis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1088–1093, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. I. P. Kaur and S. Kakkar, “Topical delivery of antifungal agents,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1303–1327, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. Jain, S. Jain, P. Khare, A. Gulbake, D. Bansal, and S. K. Jain, “Design and development of solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery of an anti-fungal agent,” Drug Delivery, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 443–451, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. P. Dandagi, S. Kumar MM Sanghvi, V. S. Mastiholimath, and A. P. Gadad, “Design and characterization of clotrimazole nanoparticles: an-approach to controlled drug delivery,” Inventi Impact, vol. 2011, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  80. E. B. Souto and R. H. Müller, “SLN and NLC for topical delivery of ketoconazole,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 501–510, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. V. Shevchenko, S. L. James, and S. E. James, “A review of tissue-engineered skin bioconstructs available for skin reconstruction,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 7, no. 43, pp. 229–258, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. J. Chong, T. T. Phan, I. J. Lim et al., “Evaluation of electrospun PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold for wound healing and layered dermal reconstitution,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 321–330, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. Carsin, P. Ainaud, H. Bevera et al., “Cultured epithelial autografts in extensive burn coverage of severely traumatized patients: a five year single-center experience with 30 patients,” Burns, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 379–387, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  84. M. Cai, Z. Li, F. Fan, Q. Huang, X. Shao, and G. Song, “Design and Synthesis of Novel Insecticides Based on the Serotonergic Ligand 1-[(4-Aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]piperazine(PAPP),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 2624–2629, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. T. S. Kumar, S. Abhilash, K. Manzoor, S. V. Nair, H. Tamura, and R. Jayakumar, “Preparation and characterization of novel β-chitin/nanosilver composite scaffolds for wound dressing applications,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 761–767, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus