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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 952540, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/952540
Review Article

Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Subject for Both Fundamental Research and Applications

1School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), IOP Campus, Bhubaneswar 751005, India
2Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098, India
3Department of Physics, University Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
4Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
5Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

Received 16 July 2013; Accepted 19 October 2013

Academic Editor: Gaurav Mago

Copyright © 2013 S. Bedanta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Single domain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been a vivid subject of intense research for the last fifty years. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructures has been achieved by both bottom-up and top-down approaches. Single domain MNPs show Néel-Brown-like relaxation. The Stoner-Wohlfarth model describes the angular dependence of the switching of the magnetization of a single domain particle in applied magnetic fields. By varying the spacing between the particles, the inter-particle interactions can be tuned. This leads to various supermagnetic states such as superparamagnetism, superspin glass, and superferromagnetism. Recently, the study of the magnetization dynamics of such single domain MNPs has attracted particular attention, and observations of various collective spin wave modes in patterned nanomagnet arrays have opened new avenues for on-chip microwave communications. MNPs have the potential for various other applications such as future recording media and in medicine. We will discuss the various aspects involved in the research on MNPs.