Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014, Article ID 196074, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/196074
Research Article

Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanofluids Used for Heat Dissipation in Hybrid Green Energy Systems

Department of Industrial Education, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 162, Heping East Road, Section 1, Da-an District, Taipei City 10610, Taiwan

Received 22 April 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 13 July 2014

Academic Editor: Chunyi Zhi

Copyright © 2014 Yi-Hsuan Hung and Hung-Jhih Gu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Baker, “What are batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 104, pp. 4245–4269, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Barrett, “The European hydrogen and fuel cell strategic research agenda and deployment strategy,” Fuel Cells Bulletin, vol. 2005, no. 5, pp. 12–19, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. J. Offer, D. Howey, M. Contestabile, R. Clague, and N. P. Brandon, “Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system,” Energy Policy, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Thounthong, V. Chunkag, P. Sethakul, B. Davat, and M. Hinaje, “Comparative study of fuel-cell vehicle hybridization with battery or supercapacitor storage device,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 3892–3904, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. T. Chau and Y. S. Wong, “Hybridization of energy sources in electric vehicles,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1059–1069, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Thounthong, S. Raël, and B. Davat, “Energy management of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power source for vehicle applications,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 376–385, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Koot, J. T. B. A. Kessels, B. de Jager, W. P. M. H. Heemels, P. P. J. van den Bosch, and M. Steinbuch, “Energy management strategies for vehicular electric power systems,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 771–782, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Bauman and M. Kazerani, “A comparative study of fuel-cell-battery, fuel-cell-ultracapacitor, and fuel-cell-battery-ultracapacitor vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 760–769, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. E. Thomas, “Fuel cell and battery electric vehicles compared,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 15, pp. 6005–6020, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Shan and S. Choe, “A high dynamic PEM fuel cell model with temperature effects,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 30–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Zhang, M. Ouyang, Q. Lu, J. Luo, and X. Li, “A model predicting performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack thermal systems,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 501–513, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Hu, G.-Y. Cao, X.-J. Zhu, and M. Hu, “Coolant circuit modeling and temperature fuzzy control of proton exchange membrane fuel cells,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 17, pp. 9110–9123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Faghri and Z. Guo, “Challenges and opportunities of thermal management issues related to fuel cell technology and modeling,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 48, no. 19-20, pp. 3891–3920, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Sakka, H. Gualous, J. van Mierlo, and H. Culcu, “Thermal modeling and heat management of supercapacitor modules for vehicle applications,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 194, no. 2, pp. 581–587, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Mottard, C. Hannay, and E. L. Winandy, “Experimental study of the thermal behavior of a water cooled Ni-Cd battery,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 117, no. 1-2, pp. 212–222, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. X. M. Xu and R. He, “Research on the heat dissipation performance of battery pack based on forced air cooling,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 240, pp. 33–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Park, “A design of air flow configuration for cooling lithium ion battery in hybrid electric vehicles,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 239, pp. 30–36, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Sato, “Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 70–77, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. C. Chen, C. C. Wan, and Y. Y. Wang, “Thermal analysis of lithium-ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 111–124, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Hung, T.-P. Teng, and J.-H. Chen, “Assessment of heat dissipation performance for nanofluid,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 132–140, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. J. Assael, C. F. Chen, I. Metaxa, and W. A. Wakeham, “Thermal conductivity of suspensions of carbon nanotubes in water,” International Journal of Thermophysics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 971–985, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. H. Hung, J. H. Chen, and T. P. Teng, “Feasibility assessment of thermal management system for green power sources using nanofluid,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 321261, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. S. Liu, M. Ching-Cheng Lin, I. T. Huang, and C. C. Wang, “Enhancement of thermal conductivity with carbon nanotube for nanofluids,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1202–1210, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Ding, H. Alias, D. Wen, and R. A. Williams, “Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids),” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 49, no. 1-2, pp. 240–250, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Lotfi, A. M. Rashidi, and A. Amrollahi, “Experimental study on the heat transfer enhancement of MWNT-water nanofluid in a shell and tube heat exchanger,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 108–111, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Aladag, S. Halelfadl, N. Doner, T. Maré, S. Duret, and P. Estellé, “Experimental investigations of the viscosity of nanofluids at low temperatures,” Applied Energy, vol. 97, pp. 876–880, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Maré, S. Halelfadl, O. Sow, P. Estellé, S. Duret, and F. Bazantay, “Comparison of the thermal performances of two nanofluids at low temperature in a plate heat exchanger,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1535–1543, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. H. Hung and W. C. Chou, “Chitosan for suspension performance and viscousity of MWCNTs,” International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, vol. 3, pp. 343–346, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. P. Teng and Y. H. Hung, “Estimation and experimental study of the density and specific heat for alumina nanofluid,” Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 707–718, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. K. Batchelor, “The effect of Brownian motion on the bulk stress in a suspension of spherical particles,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 97–117, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus