Table 1: Different techniques used for characterization of nanoparticles.

TypeTechniqueSpecific purposeReferences

Formation of nanoparticleUltraviolet-visible spectrophotometryProvide information regarding the size, structure, stabilization, and aggregation of nanoparticles[9, 47]

Morphology and particle sizeTransmission electron microscopyDetermine the shape, size (10−10 m), morphology, and allographic structure of the nanoparticles[1, 44]
High-resolution transmission electron microscopyDetermine the arrangement of the atoms and their local microstructures, such as lattice fringe, glide plane, lattice vacancies and defects, screw axes, and surface atomic arrangement of crystalline nanoparticles[60, 71]
Scanning electron microscopyDetermine the morphology by direct visualization[63, 64, 94]
Atomic force microscopyDetermine the size information (length, width, and height) and other physical properties (such as morphology and surface texture)[1, 6]
Dynamic light scatteringDetermine the particle size distribution[6, 64, 69]

Surface chargeZeta potentialDetermine the stability and surface charge of the colloidal nanoparticles, as well as the nature of the materials encapsulated inside the nanoparticle or coated on its surface[72]
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopyCharacterize the nanoparticles to understand their functional groups and determine the emission, absorption, photoconductivity, or Raman scattering of a solid, liquid, or gas[56, 64, 71]
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyDetermine the mechanism of the reaction that occurs on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles and the characteristics involved in the bonding of different elements involved, as well as confirming the structure and speciation of different elements present in the chemical composition of the magnetic nanoparticles[71]
Thermal gravimetric analysisConfirm the formation of coatings such as surfactants or polymers to estimate the binding efficiency on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles[71]

CrystallinityX-ray diffractionIdentify and quantify various crystalline forms or elemental compositions of nanoparticles[6, 47, 73]

Magnetic properties Vibrating sample magnetometryEvaluate the magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles[71]
Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometryDetermine the magnetic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles[71]

Other techniques used in nanotechnologyChromatography and related techniquesSeparate nanoparticles on the basis of their affinity towards the mobile phase[73, 81]
Energy dispersive X-ray spectraIdentify the elemental composition of the nanoparticles[56, 95]
Field flow flotationSeparate different nanoparticles based on their magnetic susceptibility[96]
Filtration and centrifugation techniquesFractionate the preparative size of the nanoparticles[8284]
Hyperspectral imagingDetermine the type of nanoparticles, study the fate and transformation of these particles in water samples, and characterize the unique surface chemistry and functional groups added to the nanomaterial[87]
Laser-induced breakdown detectionAnalyze the concentration and size of colloids[88, 89]
Mass spectrometryAnalyze fluorescent labeled nanoparticles[90, 91]
Small angle X-ray scatteringInvestigate the structural characterization of solid and fluid materials in the nanometer range[73, 81]
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopyIdentify and determine the concentrations of elements present in solid, powdered, or liquid samples[73, 81]