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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 589710, 8 pages
Research Article

Titanium Oxide Nanotube Surface Topography and MicroRNA-488 Contribute to Modulating Osteogenesis

1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chungbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
2Department of Dentistry, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi 480-717, Republic of Korea
3Department of Dental Biomaterials, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chunbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Chunbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea

Received 13 February 2014; Accepted 31 March 2014; Published 22 April 2014

Academic Editor: Young-Bum Park

Copyright © 2014 Yeon-Ho Kang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Understanding the biocomplexity of cell behavior in relation to the topographical characteristics of implants is essential for successful osseointegration with good longevity and minimum failure. Here, we investigated whether culture on titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes of various diameters could affect the behavior and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the tested nanotubes, those of 50 nm in diameter were found to trigger the expression of the osteoblast-specific transcription factors, sp7 and Dlx5, and upregulate the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Here, we report that miR-488 was significantly induced in osteoblasts cultured on 50 nm nanotubes and continued to increase with the progression of osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-488 suppressed the expression levels of ALP and matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2). This suppression of ALP transcription was overcome by treatment with the MMP-2 activator, bafilomycin A1. Collectively, these results suggest that 50 nm is the optimum TiO2 nanotube diameter for implants, and that modulation of miR-488 can change the differentiation activity of cells on TiO2 nanotubes. This emphasizes that we must fully understand the physicochemical properties of TiO2 nanotubes and the endogenous biomolecules that interact with such surfaces, in order to fully support their clinical application.