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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 864914, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/864914
Review Article

Study of Modern Nano Enhanced Techniques for Removal of Dyes and Metals

1Geology Department, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
4Department of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
5Department of Geology, Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 16 February 2014; Revised 25 March 2014; Accepted 26 March 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editor: Fan Dong

Copyright © 2014 Samavia Batool et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Industrial effluent often contains the significant amount of hexavalent chromium and synthetic dyes. The discharge of wastewater without proper treatment into water streams consequently enters the soil and disturbs the aquatic and terrestrial life. A range of wastewater treatment technologies have been proposed which can efficiently reduce both Cr(VI) and azo dyes simultaneously to less toxic form such as biodegradation, biosorption, adsorption, bioaccumulation, and nanotechnology. Rate of simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and azo dyes can be enhanced by combining different treatment techniques. Utilization of synergistic treatment is receiving much attention due to its enhanced efficiency to remove Cr(VI) and azo dye simultaneously. This review evaluates the removal methods for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and azo dyes by nanomicrobiology, surface engineered nanoparticles, and nanophotocatalyst. Sorption mechanism of biochar for heavy metals and organic contaminants is also discussed. Potential microbial strains capable of simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and azo dyes have been summarized in some details as well.