Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 123696, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/123696
Review Article

Nanomaterial Synthesis Using Plasma Generation in Liquid

Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan

Received 20 August 2015; Revised 27 September 2015; Accepted 28 September 2015

Academic Editor: Wei Chen

Copyright © 2015 Genki Saito and Tomohiro Akiyama. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Murphy, K. Ting, X. Zhang, C. Soo, and Z. Zheng, “Current development of silver nanoparticle preparation, investigation, and application in the field of medicine,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Article ID 696918, 12 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. J. I. Abdul Rashid, J. Abdullah, N. A. Yusof, and R. Hajian, “The development of silicon nanowire as sensing material and its applications,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 328093, 16 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J.-Y. Huang, K.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-K. Lai, “Fabrication, modification, and emerging applications of TiO2 nanotube arrays by electrochemical synthesis: a review,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2013, Article ID 761971, 19 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. E. Jonsson, H. Fredriksson, R. Sellappan, and D. Chakarov, “Nanostructures for enhanced light absorption in solar energy devices,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2011, Article ID 939807, 11 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Lohcharoenkal, L. Wang, Y. C. Chen, and Y. Rojanasakul, “Protein nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 180549, 12 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Parveen, S. Rana, and R. Fangueiro, “A review on nanomaterial dispersion, microstructure, and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube and nanofiber reinforced cementitious composites,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 710175, 19 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. X. Liu, Z. Zhong, Y. Tang, and B. Liang, “Review on the synthesis and applications of Fe3O4 nanomaterials,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 902538, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. M. Muñoz-Flores, B. I. Kharisov, V. M. Jiménez-Pérez, P. Elizondo Martínez, and S. T. López, “Recent advances in the synthesis and main applications of metallic nanoalloys,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 7705–7721, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. A. Kareem and A. A. Kaliani, “Glow discharge plasma electrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis,” Ionics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 315–327, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. R. Locke, M. Sato, P. Sunka, M. R. Hoffmann, and J.-S. Chang, “Electrohydraulic discharge and nonthermal plasma for water treatment,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 882–905, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Jiang, J. Zheng, S. Qiu et al., “Review on electrical discharge plasma technology for wastewater remediation,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 236, pp. 348–368, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Bruggeman and C. Leys, “Non-thermal plasmas in and in contact with liquids,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 42, no. 5, Article ID 053001, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Mariotti and R. M. Sankaran, “Microplasmas for nanomaterials synthesis,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 43, no. 32, Article ID 323001, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. A. Ashkarran, “Metal and metal oxide nanostructures prepared by electrical arc discharge method in liquids,” Journal of Cluster Science, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 233–266, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Mariotti, J. Patel, V. Švrček, and P. Maguire, “Plasma–liquid interactions at atmospheric pressure for nanomaterials synthesis and surface engineering,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 9, no. 11-12, pp. 1074–1085, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. G. Graham and K. R. Stalder, “Plasmas in liquids and some of their applications in nanoscience,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 44, no. 17, Article ID 174037, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Qiang, L. Junshuai, and L. Yongfeng, “A review of plasma-liquid interactions for nanomaterial synthesis,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 42, Article ID 424005, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. Y.-B. Xie and C.-J. Liu, “Stability of ionic liquids under the influence of glow discharge plasmas,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 239–245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Z. Wei and C.-J. Liu, “Synthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles in ionic liquid by applying room temperature plasma,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 353–355, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Xie, Z. Wei, C.-J. Liu, L. Cui, and C. Wang, “Morphologic evolution of Au nanocrystals grown in ionic liquid by plasma reduction,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 374, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z. Wang, C.-J. Liu, and G. Zhang, “Size control of carbon black-supported platinum nanoparticles via novel plasma reduction,” Catalysis Communications, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 959–962, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Liang, Z.-J. Wang, and C.-J. Liu, “Size-controlled synthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles at room temperature under the influence of glow discharge,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 124–129, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Molina, C. Ligero, P. Jovančić, and E. Bertran, “In situ polymerization of aqueous solutions of NIPAAm initiated by atmospheric plasma treatment,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 506–516, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Ananth and Y. S. Mok, “Synthesis of RuO2 nanomaterials under dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure—influence of substrates on the morphology and application,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 239, pp. 290–298, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Kitano, H. Aoki, and S. Hamaguchi, “Radio-frequency-driven atmospheric-pressure plasmas in contact with liquid water,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 10, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Acayanka, A. Tiya Djowe, S. Laminsi et al., “Plasma-assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanorods by gliding arc discharge processing at atmospheric pressure for photocatalytic applications,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 725–735, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Kaneko, K. Baba, T. Harada, and R. Hatakeyama, “Novel gas-liquid interfacial plasmas for synthesis of metal nanoparticles,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 713–718, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Kaneko, K. Baba, and R. Hatakeyama, “Static gas-liquid interfacial direct current discharge plasmas using ionic liquid cathode,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 105, no. 10, Article ID 103306, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Baba, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, “Efficient synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ion irradiation in gas-liquid interfacial plasmas,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 2, no. 3, Article ID 035006, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Baba, T. Kaneko, R. Hatakeyama, K. Motomiya, and K. Tohji, “Synthesis of monodispersed nanoparticles functionalized carbon nanotubes in plasma-ionic liquid interfacial fields,” Chemical Communications, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 255–257, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Kaneko, Q. Chen, T. Harada, and R. Hatakeyama, “Structural and reactive kinetics in gas-liquid interfacial plasmas,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, Article ID 034014, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Q. Chen, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, “Rapid synthesis of water-soluble gold nanoparticles with control of size and assembly using gas-liquid interfacial discharge plasma,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 521, pp. 113–117, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Q. Chen, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, “Characterization of pulse-driven gas-liquid interfacial discharge plasmas and application to synthesis of gold nanoparticle-DNA encapsulated carbon nanotubes,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 11, supplement, no. 5, pp. S63–S66, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. A. Meiss, M. Rohnke, L. Kienle, S. Zein El Abedin, F. Endres, and J. Janek, “Employing plasmas as gaseous electrodes at the free surface of ionic liquids: deposition of nanocrystalline silver particles,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 50–53, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Brettholle, O. Höfft, L. Klarhöfer et al., “Plasma electrochemistry in ionic liquids: deposition of copper nanoparticles,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1750–1755, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. Höfft and F. Endres, “Plasma electrochemistry in ionic liquids: an alternative route to generate nanoparticles,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 13, no. 30, pp. 13472–13478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Kulbe, O. Höfft, A. Ulbrich et al., “Plasma electrochemistry in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide: copper nanoparticles from CuCl and CuCl2,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 32–37, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Yang, Y. Li, T. Liu et al., “Plasma synthesis of Pd nanoparticles decorated-carbon nanotubes and its application in suzuki reaction,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 226, pp. 52–58, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Liu, F. Yang, Y. Li et al., “Plasma synthesis of carbon nanotube-gold nanohybrids: efficient catalysts for green oxidation of silanes in water,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 245–250, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Sugama, F. Tochikubo, and S. Uchida, “Glow discharge formation over water surface at saturated water vapor pressure and its application to wastewater treatment,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 8858–8863, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Hickling and M. D. Ingram, “Glow-discharge electrolysis,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 65–81, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Kawamura, K. Moritani, and Y. lto, “Discharge electrolysis in molten chloride: formation of fine silver particles,” Plasmas & Ions, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. M. Tokushige, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis to form various metal/alloy nanoparticles,” Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 619–626, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Tokushige, H. Tsujimura, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Formation of metallic Si and SiC nanoparticles from SiO2 particles by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis in chloride melt,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 100, pp. 300–303, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Tokushige, T. Yamanaka, A. Matsuura, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe and FePt) by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1156–1160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Tokushige, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Formation of fine Ni nanoparticle by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis using rotating disk anode,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. E162–E166, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Tokushige, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Synthesis of Ni nanoparticles by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1665–1670, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Tokushige, H. Hongo, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Formation of Sm-Co intermetallic compound nanoparticles based on plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis in chloride melt,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. E5–E10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Tokushige, T. Nishikiori, M. C. Lafouresse et al., “Formation of FePt intermetallic compound nanoparticles by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 55, no. 27, pp. 8154–8159, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Bruggeman, E. Ribežl, J. Degroote, J. Vierendeels, and C. Leys, “Plasma characteristics and electrical breakdown between metal and water electrodes,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1964–1967, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W.-T. Yao, S.-H. Yu, Y. Zhou et al., “Formation of uniform CuO nanorods by spontaneous aggregation: selective synthesis of CuO, Cu2O, and Cu nanoparticles by a solid-liquid phase arc discharge process,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 29, pp. 14011–14016, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Furuya, Y. Hirowatari, T. Ishioka, and A. Harata, “Protective agent-free preparation of gold nanoplates and nanorods in aqueous HAuCl4 solutions using gas-liquid interface discharge,” Chemistry Letters, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1088–1089, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Ito, M. Hayakawa, S. Takashima et al., “Preparation of aqueous dispersion of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using plasma on liquid surface,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 11, Article ID 116201, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Hagino, H. Kondo, K. Ishikawa, H. Kano, M. Sekine, and M. Hori, “Ultrahigh-speed synthesis of nanographene using alcohol in-liquid plasma,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 5, no. 3, Article ID 035101, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Matsushima, M. Noda, T. Yoshida et al., “Formation of graphene nano-particle by means of pulsed discharge to ethanol,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 113, no. 11, Article ID 114304, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. Kozak, E. Shibata, A. Iizuka, and T. Nakamura, “Growth of carbon dendrites on cathode above liquid ethanol using surface plasma,” Carbon, vol. 70, pp. 87–94, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. I. G. Koo, M. S. Lee, J. H. Shim, J. H. Ahn, and W. M. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticles prepared by a plasma-chemical reduction method,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 38, pp. 4125–4128, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Richmonds and R. M. Sankaran, “Plasma-liquid electrochemistry: rapid synthesis of colloidal metal nanoparticles by microplasma reduction of aqueous cations,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 13, Article ID 131501, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Shirai, M. Nakazawa, S. Ibuka, and S. Ishii, “Atmospheric DC glow microplasmas using miniature gas flow and electrolyte cathode,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, Article ID 036002, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F.-C. Chang, C. Richmonds, and R. M. Sankaran, “Microplasma-assisted growth of colloidal Ag nanoparticles for point-of-use surface-enhanced Raman scattering applications,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, vol. 28, no. 4, article L5, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, and M. Kondo, “Microplasma-induced surface engineering of silicon nanocrystals in colloidal dispersion,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, no. 16, Article ID 161502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. W.-H. Chiang, C. Richmonds, and R. M. Sankaran, “Continuous-flow, atmospheric-pressure microplasmas: aversatile source for metal nanoparticle synthesis in the gas or liquid phase,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 19, no. 3, Article ID 034011, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. X. Z. Huang, X. X. Zhong, Y. Lu et al., “Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles via environment-benign atmospheric microplasma electrochemistry,” Nanotechnology, vol. 24, no. 9, Article ID 095604, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Patel, L. Němcová, P. Maguire, W. G. Graham, and D. Mariotti, “Synthesis of surfactant-free electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles by plasma-induced liquid chemistry,” Nanotechnology, vol. 24, no. 24, Article ID 245604, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Du and M. Xiao, “Cu2O nanoparticles synthesis by microplasma,” Scientific Reports, vol. 4, article 7339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. R. Wang, S. Zuo, D. Wu et al., “Microplasma-assisted synthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles and their use in the detection of cardiac troponin I (cTn-I),” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 380–391, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. T. Yan, X. Zhong, A. E. Rider, Y. Lu, S. A. Furman, and K. Ostrikov, “Microplasma-chemical synthesis and tunable real-time plasmonic responses of alloyed AuxAg1-x nanoparticles,” Chemical Communications, vol. 50, no. 24, pp. 3144–3147, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. B. Sun, M. Sato, and J. S. Clements, “Optical study of active species produced by a pulsed streamer corona discharge in water,” Journal of Electrostatics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 189–202, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Bruggeman, T. Verreycken, M. Á. González et al., “Optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for plasmas in liquids: opportunities and pitfalls,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 43, no. 12, Article ID 124005, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Q. Chen, T. Kitamura, K. Saito et al., “Microplasma discharge in ethanol solution: characterization and its application to the synthesis of carbon microstructures,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 13, pp. 4435–4440, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. Greda, P. Jamroz, and P. Pohl, “Effect of the addition of non-ionic surfactants on the emission characteristic of direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with a flowing liquid cathode,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 134–141, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. P. Jamroz, K. Greda, and P. Pohl, “Development of direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, glow discharges generated in contact with flowing electrolyte solutions for elemental analysis by optical emission spectrometry,” TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 41, pp. 105–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Jamróz, P. Pohl, and W. Zyrnicki, “An analytical performance of atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with flowing small size liquid cathode,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1032–1037, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. Greda, P. Jamroz, and P. Pohl, “Comparison of the performance of direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarges operated between a small sized flowing liquid cathode and miniature argon or helium flow microjets,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1233–1241, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. Greda, P. Jamroz, A. Dzimitrowicz, and P. Pohl, “Direct elemental analysis of honeys by atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with a flowing liquid cathode,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 154–161, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Tokushige, A. Matsuura, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito, “Formation of Co-Pt intermetallic compound nanoparticles by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis in a chloride melt,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. E21–E26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. Hayashi, S. Machmudah, N. Takada et al., “Decomposition of methyl orange using pulsed discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure: effect of different electrodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 1, Article ID 010212, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. Shirai, S. Uchida, and F. Tochikubo, “Synthesis of metal nanoparticles by dual plasma electrolysis using atmospheric dc glow discharge in contact with liquid,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 4, Article ID 046202, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. M. Kim, G. S. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effects of PVP and KCl concentrations on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a solution plasma processing,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 28, pp. 4354–4356, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. X. Hu, O. Takai, and N. Saito, “Simple synthesis of platinum nanoparticles by plasma sputtering in water,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 1, Article ID 01AN05, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. Watthanaphanit, G. Panomsuwan, and N. Saito, “A novel one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles in an alginate gel matrix by solution plasma sputtering,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1622–1629, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. X. Hu, X. Zhang, X. Shen, H. Li, O. Takai, and N. Saito, “Plasma-induced synthesis of CuO nanofibers and ZnO nanoflowers in water,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1129–1139, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. K. Heo, M. A. Bratescu, T. Ueno, and N. Saito, “Synthesis of mono-dispersed nanofluids using solution plasma,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 116, no. 2, Article ID 024302, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Terashima, Y. Iwai, S.-P. Cho et al., “Solution plasma sputtering processes for the synthesis of PtAu/C catalysts for li-air batteries,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 5407–5420, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. Pootawang, N. Saito, and S. Y. Lee, “Discharge time dependence of a solution plasma process for colloidal copper nanoparticle synthesis and particle characteristics,” Nanotechnology, vol. 24, no. 5, Article ID 055604, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Kang, O. L. Li, and N. Saito, “Synthesis of structure-controlled carbon nano spheres by solution plasma process,” Carbon, vol. 60, pp. 292–298, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. X. L. Hu, O. Takai, and N. Saito, “Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by solution plasma sputtering in various solvents,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 417, no. 1, Article ID 012030, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. X. Hu, X. Shen, O. Takai, and N. Saito, “Facile fabrication of PtAu alloy clusters using solution plasma sputtering and their electrocatalytic activity,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 552, pp. 351–355, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. P. Pootawang, N. Saito, O. Takai, and S.-Y. Lee, “Synthesis and characteristics of Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites by arc-discharge solution plasma processing,” Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 39, Article ID 395602, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. Pootawang and S. Y. Lee, “Rapid synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-embedded mesoporous silica via solution plasma and its catalysis for 4-nitrophenol reduction,” Materials Letters, vol. 80, pp. 1–4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S.-P. Cho, M. A. Bratescu, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Microstructural characterization of gold nanoparticles synthesized by solution plasma processing,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 45, Article ID 455701, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. P. Pootawang, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Ag nanoparticle incorporation in mesoporous silica synthesized by solution plasma and their catalysis for oleic acid hydrogenation,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1037–1040, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. X. Hu, S.-P. Cho, O. Takai, and N. Saito, “Rapid synthesis and structural characterization of well-defined gold clusters by solution plasma sputtering,” Crystal Growth & Design, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 119–123, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. Y. K. Heo and S. Y. Lee, “Effects of the gap distance on the characteristics of gold nanoparticles in nanofluids synthesized using solution plasma processing,” Metals and Materials International, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 431–434, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. A. Bratescu, S.-P. Cho, O. Takai, and N. Saito, “Size-controlled gold nanoparticles synthesized in solution plasma,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 50, pp. 24569–24576, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. N. Saito, J. Hieda, and O. Takai, “Synthesis process of gold nanoparticles in solution plasma,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 3, pp. 912–917, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. O. Takai, “Solution plasma processing (SPP),” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 2003–2011, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J. Hieda, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Exotic shapes of gold nanoparticles synthesized using plasma in aqueous solution,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 854–856, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. T. Shirafuji, Y. Noguchi, T. Yamamoto et al., “Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by solution plasma processing in ammonia aqueous solution and preparation of composite material with polyamide 6,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 12, Article ID 125101, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. P. Pootawang, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Solution plasma for template removal in mesoporous silica. PH and discharge time varying characteristics,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 20, pp. 7030–7035, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. Tsukada, T. Mizutani, S. Ogawa et al., “Adsorption reaction of L-cysteine on Au nanoparticle prepared by solution plasma,” e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, vol. 11, pp. 18–24, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. I. Prasertsung, S. Damrongsakkul, C. Terashima, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Preparation of low molecular weight chitosan using solution plasma system,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 2745–2749, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. Mizutani, T. Murai, H. Nameki, T. Yoshida, and S. Yagi, “In situ ultraviolet-visible absorbance measurement during and after solution plasma sputtering for preparation of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 11S, Article ID 11RA03, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H. Lee, S. H. Park, S.-J. Kim et al., “Liquid phase plasma synthesis of iron oxide/carbon composite as dielectric material for capacitor,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2014, Article ID 132032, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. T. Beck, Z. Dinya, S. Kéki, and L. Papp, “Formation of C60 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons upon electric discharges in liquid toluene,” Tetrahedron, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 285–290, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. H. Lange, M. Sioda, A. Huczko, Y. Q. Zhu, H. W. Kroto, and D. R. M. Walton, “Nanocarbon production by arc discharge in water,” Carbon, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1617–1623, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. T. Okada, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, “Conversion of toluene into carbon nanotubes using arc discharge plasmas in solution,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 9, pp. 4262–4265, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. N. Parkansky, G. Frenkel, B. Alterkop et al., “Ni-C powder synthesis by a submerged pulsed arc in breakdown mode,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 464, no. 1-2, pp. 483–487, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. Q. Chen, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, “Synthesis of superfine ethanol-soluble CoO nanoparticles via discharge plasma in liquid,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 5, no. 9, Article ID 096201, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. H.-G. Kim, H. Lee, B. H. Kim, S.-J. Kim, J.-M. Lee, and S.-C. Jung, “Synthesis process of cobalt nanoparticles in liquid-phase plasma,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 1, Article ID 01AN03, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. H. Lee, S. H. Park, S.-C. Jung, J.-J. Yun, S.-J. Kim, and D.-H. Kim, “Preparation of nonaggregated silver nanoparticles by the liquid phase plasma reduction method,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1105–1110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. V. S. Burakov, A. A. Nevar, M. I. Nedel'Ko, and N. V. Tarasenko, “Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles during electric discharge in water,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 679–681, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. V. S. Burakov, N. A. Savastenko, N. V. Tarasenko, and E. A. Nevar, “Synthesis of nanoparticles using a pulsed electrical discharge in a liquid,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 114–124, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. N. Tarasenko, A. Nevar, and M. Nedelko, “Properties of zinc-oxide nanoparticles synthesized by electrical-discharge technique in liquids,” Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science, vol. 207, no. 10, pp. 2319–2322, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. Kang, O. L. Li, and N. Saito, “A simple synthesis method for nano-metal catalyst supported on mesoporous carbon: the solution plasma process,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 15, pp. 6874–6882, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. Z. Abdullaeva, E. Omurzak, C. Iwamoto et al., “Onion-like carbon-encapsulated Co, Ni, and Fe magnetic nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity synthesized by a pulsed plasma in a liquid,” Carbon, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1776–1785, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. K. Zhazgul, O. Emil, T. Shintaro et al., “Magnetite nanoparticles synthesized using pulsed plasma in liquid,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 11S, Article ID 11NJ02, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. E. Omurzak, W. Shimokawa, K. Taniguchi et al., “Synthesis of wurtzite-type ZnMgS by the pulsed plasma in liquid,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 1S1, Article ID 01AB09, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. Z. Abdullaeva, E. Omurzak, C. Iwamoto et al., “Pulsed plasma synthesis of iron and nickel nanoparticles coated by carbon for medical applications,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 1, Article ID 01AJ01, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. L. P. Biró, Z. E. Horváth, L. Szalmás et al., “Continuous carbon nanotube production in underwater AC electric arc,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 372, no. 3-4, pp. 399–402, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. V. Scuderi, C. Bongiorno, G. Faraci, and S. Scalese, “Effect of the liquid environment on the formation of carbon nanotubes and graphene layers by arcing processes,” Carbon, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 2365–2369, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. Y. Ichin, K. Mitamura, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Characterization of platinum catalyst supported on carbon nanoballs prepared by solution plasma processing,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 826–830, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. N. Matsuda, T. Nakashima, T. Kato, and H. Shiroishi, “Synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotube-supported platinum catalysts by solution plasma processing for oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 146, pp. 73–78, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. D. G. Tong, Y. Y. Luo, W. Chu, Y. C. Guo, and W. Tian, “Cutting of carbon nanotubes via solution plasma processing,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 897–905, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. G. Tong, W. Chu, P. Wu, and L. Zhang, “Honeycomb-like Co-B amorphous alloy catalysts assembled by a solution plasma process show enhanced catalytic hydrolysis activity for hydrogen generation,” RSC Advances, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 2369–2376, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. D. G. Tong, P. Wu, P. K. Su, D. Q. Wang, and H. Y. Tian, “Preparation of zinc oxide nanospheres by solution plasma process and their optical property, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities,” Materials Letters, vol. 70, pp. 94–97, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. Y. L. Hsin, K. C. Hwang, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Kai, “Production and in-situ metal filling of carbon nanotubes in water,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 830–833, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. J. Hieda, N. Saito, and O. Takai, “Size-regulated gold nanoparticles fabricated by a discharge in reverse micelle solutions,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 202, no. 22-23, pp. 5343–5346, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. Y. Tang, Y. Lai, D. Gong et al., “Ultrafast synthesis of layered titanate microspherulite particles by electrochemical spark discharge spallation,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 7704–7708, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. A. A. Ashkarran, A. I. Zad, M. M. Ahadian, and S. A. M. Ardakani, “Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles prepared by the arc discharge method in deionized water,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 19, Article ID 195709, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. A. A. Ashkarran, A. Iraji zad, S. M. Mahdavi, M. M. Ahadian, and M. R. Hormozi nezhad, “Rapid and efficient synthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles by arc discharge method,” Applied Physics A, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 423–428, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. A. A. Ashkarran, A. Iraji Zad, M. M. Ahadian, and M. R. Hormozi Nezhad, “Stability, size and optical properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles prepared by electrical arc discharge in water,” The European Physical Journal: Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 1, Article ID 10601, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. A. A. Ashkarran, A. Iraji zad, S. M. Mahdavi, and M. M. Ahadian, “ZnO nanoparticles prepared by electrical arc discharge method in water,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 6–8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. A. A. Ashkarran, A. Iraji Zad, S. M. Mahdavi, and M. M. Ahadian, “Photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via submerged arc discharge method,” Applied Physics A, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1097–1102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. A. A. Ashkarran, “A novel method for synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles by arc discharge in liquid,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1442–1447, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. A. A. Ashkarran, S. A. A. Afshar, S. M. Aghigh, and M. kavianipour, “Photocatalytic activity of ZrO2 nanoparticles prepared by electrical arc discharge method in water,” Polyhedron, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1370–1374, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. A. A. Ashkarran, M. Kavianipour, S. M. Aghigh, S. A. A. Afshar, S. Saviz, and A. I. Zad, “On the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles via submerged arc discharge technique: synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties,” Journal of Cluster Science, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 753–766, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. C.-H. Lo, T.-T. Tsung, and L.-C. Chen, “Shape-controlled synthesis of Cu-based nanofluid using submerged arc nanoparticle synthesis system (SANSS),” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 277, no. 1–4, pp. 636–642, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. C.-H. Lo, T.-T. Tsung, and H.-M. Lin, “Preparation of silver nanofluid by the submerged arc nanoparticle synthesis system (SANSS),” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 434-435, pp. 659–662, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. J.-K. Lung, J.-C. Huang, D.-C. Tien et al., “Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 434-435, pp. 655–658, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. D.-C. Tien, K.-H. Tseng, C.-Y. Liao, and T.-T. Tsung, “Identification and quantification of ionic silver from colloidal silver prepared by electric spark discharge system and its antimicrobial potency study,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 473, no. 1-2, pp. 298–302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. N. Sano, H. Wang, M. Chhowalla, I. Alexandrou, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Nanotechnology: synthesis of carbon ‘onions’ in water,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6863, pp. 506–507, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. N. Sano, H. Wang, I. Alexandrou et al., “Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2783–2788, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. I. Alexandrou, H. Wang, N. Sano, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Structure of carbon onions and nanotubes formed by arc in liquids,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 1055–1058, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. N. Sano, M. Naito, M. Chhowalla et al., “Pressure effects on nanotubes formation using the submerged arc in water method,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 378, no. 1-2, pp. 29–34, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. H. Wang, M. Chhowalla, N. Sano, S. Jia, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Large-scale synthesis of single-walled carbon nanohorns by submerged arc,” Nanotechnology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 546–550, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. H. W. Zhu, X. S. Li, B. Jiang et al., “Formation of carbon nanotubes in water by the electric-arc technique,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 366, no. 5-6, pp. 664–669, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. M. V. Antisari, R. Marazzi, and R. Krsmanovic, “Synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes by electric arc discharge in liquid environments,” Carbon, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 2393–2401, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. S.-M. Liu, M. Kobayashi, S. Sato, and K. Kimura, “Synthesis of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles by arc-discharge in water,” Chemical Communications, no. 37, pp. 4690–4692, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. B. Xu, J. Guo, X. Wang, X. Liu, and H. Ichinose, “Synthesis of carbon nanocapsules containing Fe, Ni or Co by arc discharge in aqueous solution,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 13, pp. 2631–2634, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. J. Guo, X. Wang, and B. Xu, “One-step synthesis of carbon-onion-supported platinum nanoparticles by arc discharge in an aqueous solution,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 179–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. B. Rebollo-Plata, M. P. Sampedro, G. Gallardo-Gómez et al., “Growth of metal micro and/or nanoparticles utilizing arc-discharge immersed in liquid,” Revista Mexicana de Física, vol. 60, no. 3, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  153. N. Sano, O. Kawanami, T. Charinpanitkul, and W. Tanthapanichakoon, “Study on reaction field in arc-in-water to produce carbon nano-materials,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 19, pp. 6694–6698, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. N. Sano, J. Nakano, and T. Kanki, “Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes with nanohorns by arc in liquid nitrogen,” Carbon, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 686–688, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. N. Sano, “Formation of multi-shelled carbon nanoparticles by arc discharge in liquid benzene,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 88, no. 2-3, pp. 235–238, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. N. Sano, T. Charinpanitkul, T. Kanki, and W. Tanthapanichakoon, “Controlled synthesis of carbon nanoparticles by arc in water method with forced convective jet,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 645–649, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. N. Sano, “Separated syntheses of Gd-hybridized single-wall carbon nanohorns, single-wall nanotubes and multi-wall nanostructures by arc discharge in water with support of gas injection,” Carbon, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 450–453, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. N. Sano, T. Suntornlohanakul, C. Poonjarernsilp, H. Tamon, and T. Charinpanitkul, “Controlled syntheses of various palladium alloy nanoparticles dispersed in single-walled carbon nanohorns by one-step formation using an arc discharge method,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 4732–4738, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. N. Sano, H. Wang, M. Chhowalla et al., “Fabrication of inorganic molybdenum disulfide fullerenes by arc in water,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 368, no. 3-4, pp. 331–337, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. P. Muthakarn, N. Sano, T. Charinpanitkul, W. Tanthapanichakoon, and T. Kanki, “Characteristics of carbon nanoparticles synthesized by a submerged arc in alcohols, alkanes, and aromatics,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 37, pp. 18299–18306, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. N. Parkansky, L. Glikman, I. I. Beilis, B. Alterkop, R. L. Boxman, and D. Gindin, “W–C electrode erosion in a pulsed arc submerged in liquid,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 789–797, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. T. Charinpanitkul, W. Tanthapanichakoon, and N. Sano, “Carbon nanostructures synthesized by arc discharge between carbon and iron electrodes in liquid nitrogen,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 629–632, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. O. Kawanami and N. Sano, “Gravitational effects on carbon nano-materials synthesized by arc in water,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1161, no. 1, pp. 494–499, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. J. Senthilnathan, C.-C. Weng, J.-D. Liao, and M. Yoshimura, “Submerged liquid plasma for the synthesis of unconventional nitrogen polymers,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, article 2414, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. N. Sano and H. Tamon, “Submerged arc discharge technique to explore novel non-carbon nanotubes: syntheses of nanotubes from ZnO and BaTiO3,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 4, Article ID 048002, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. T. Sato, K. Usuki, A. Okuwaki, and Y. Goto, “Synthesis of metal nitrides and carbide powders by a spark discharge method in liquid media,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 3879–3882, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. T. Sato, S. Yasuda, T. Yoshioka, and A. Okuwaki, “Synthesis of γ-iron by a spark discharge method in liquid ammonia,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 1430–1432, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. C. Cho, Y. W. Choi, C. Kang, and G. W. Lee, “Effects of the medium on synthesis of nanopowders by wire explosion process,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 14, Article ID 141501, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. Z. Kozáková, M. Nejezchleb, F. Krčma, I. Halamová, J. Čáslavský, and J. Dolinová, “Removal of organic dye Direct Red 79 from water solutions by DC diaphragm discharge: analysis of decomposition products,” Desalination, vol. 258, no. 1–3, pp. 93–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. F. D. Baerdemaeker, M. Šimek, J. Schmidt, and C. Leys, “Characteristics of ac capillary discharge produced in electrically conductive water solution,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 341–354, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. S. A. Campbell, V. J. Cunnane, and D. J. Schiffrin, “Cathodic contact glow discharge electrolysis under reduced pressure,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 325, no. 1-2, pp. 257–268, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. A. Lal, H. Bleuler, and R. Wüthrich, “Fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by electrochemical discharges,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 488–491, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. Y. Zhou, S. H. Yu, X. P. Cui, G. Y. Wang, and Z. Y. Chen, “Formation of silver nanowires by a novel solid-liquid phase arc discharge method,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 545–546, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. Y. Toriyabe, S. Watanabe, S. Yatsu, T. Shibayama, and T. Mizuno, “Controlled formation of metallic nanoballs during plasma electrolysis,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 4, Article ID 041501, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, T. Akiyama, S. Yoshida, S. Yatsu, and S. Watanabe, “Size-controlled Ni nanoparticles formation by solution glow discharge,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 79, no. 8, Article ID 083501, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, and T. Akiyama, “Synthesis of ZnO nanoflowers by solution plasma,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 130, no. 1-2, pp. 79–83, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, M. Tsubota, and T. Akiyama, “Nickel nanoparticles formation from solution plasma using edge-shielded electrode,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 719–728, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, M. Tsubota, and T. Akiyama, “Synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles by solution plasma,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, no. 2, Article ID 023302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, M. Tsubota, and T. Akiyama, “Surface morphology of a glow discharge electrode in a solution,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 112, no. 1, Article ID 013306, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, M. Tsubota, and T. Akiyama, “Influence of solution temperature and surfactants on morphologies of tin oxide produced using a solution plasma technique,” Crystal Growth & Design, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 2455–2459, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. Z. Wu, Z.-K. Zhang, D.-Z. Guo, Y.-J. Xing, and G.-M. Zhang, “Titanium oxide nanospheres: preparation, characterization, and wide-spectral absorption,” Physica Status Solidi A: Applications and Materials Science, vol. 209, no. 10, pp. 2020–2026, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. A. Allagui, E. A. Baranova, and R. Wüthrich, “Synthesis of Ni and Pt nanomaterials by cathodic contact glow discharge electrolysis in acidic and alkaline media,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 93, pp. 137–142, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. Y. Nakasugi, G. Saito, T. Yamashita, and T. Akiyama, “Synthesis of nonstoichiometric titanium oxide nanoparticles using discharge in HCl solution,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 115, no. 12, Article ID 123303, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. G. Saito, W. O. S. B. W. M. Azman, Y. Nakasugi, and T. Akiyama, “Optimization of electrolyte concentration and voltage for effective formation of Sn/SnO2 nanoparticles by electrolysis in liquid,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1038–1042, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. G. Saito, Y. Nakasugi, and T. Akiyama, “Excitation temperature of a solution plasma during nanoparticle synthesis,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 116, no. 8, Article ID 083301, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. G. Saito, Y. Nakasugi, T. Yamashita, and T. Akiyama, “Solution plasma synthesis of ZnO flowers and their photoluminescence properties,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 290, pp. 419–424, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. G. Saito, C. Zhu, and T. Akiyama, “Surfactant-assisted synthesis of Sn nanoparticles via solution plasma technique,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 728–732, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. G. Saito, Y. Nakasugi, T. Yamashita, and T. Akiyama, “Solution plasma synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology, vol. 25, no. 13, Article ID 135603, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. T. Paulmier, J. M. Bell, and P. M. Fredericks, “Development of a novel cathodic plasma/electrolytic deposition technique. Part 2: physico-chemical analysis of the plasma discharge,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 21, pp. 8771–8781, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. J. Gao, A. Wang, Y. Li et al., “Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent composite by using glow discharge electrolysis plasma,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 1377–1383, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. T. Paulmier, J. M. Bell, and P. M. Fredericks, “Plasma electrolytic deposition of titanium dioxide nanorods and nano-particles,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 208, no. 1–3, pp. 117–123, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. G. Saito, S. Hosokai, M. Tsubota, and T. Akiyama, “Ripple formation on a nickel electrode during a glow discharge in a solution,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, no. 18, Article ID 181601, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. M. R. M. B. Julaihi, S. Yatsu, M. Jeem, and S. Watanabe, “Synthesis of stainless steel nanoballs via submerged glow-discharge plasma and its photocatalytic performance in methylene blue decomposition,” Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 965–982, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. G. Saito and N. Sakaguchi, “Solution plasma synthesis of Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology, vol. 26, no. 23, Article ID 235602, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  195. K. Azumi, A. Kanada, M. Kawaguchi, and M. Seo, “Formation of microparticles from titanium and silicon electrodes using high-voltage discharge in electrolyte solution,” Hyomen Jijutsu, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 938–941, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  196. L. Schaper, W. G. Graham, and K. R. Stalder, “Vapour layer formation by electrical discharges through electrically conducting liquids—modelling and experiment,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, Article ID 034003, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. L. Schaper, K. R. Stalder, and W. G. Graham, “Plasma production in electrically conducting liquids,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, Article ID 034004, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. Ruma, P. Lukes, N. Aoki et al., “Effects of pulse frequency of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed streamer discharge plasmas in water,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 46, no. 12, Article ID 125202, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. G. Saito, Y. Nakasugi, and T. Akiyama, “Generation of solution plasma over a large electrode surface area,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, no. 2, Article ID 023303, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  200. S. Yatsu, H. Takahashf, H. Sasaki et al., “Fabrication of nanoparticles by electric discharge plasma in liquid,” Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 425–429, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. G. Saito, Y. Nakasugi, and T. Akiyama, “High-speed camera observation of solution plasma during nanoparticles formation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, no. 8, Article ID 83104, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. K. Kobayashi, Y. Tomita, and M. Sanmyo, “Electrochemical generation of hot plasma by pulsed discharge in an electrolyte,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 104, no. 26, pp. 6318–6326, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, T. Ohmori, Y. Aoki, and A. Takahashi, “Hydrogen evolution by plasma electrolysis in aqueous solution,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 396–401, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. A. Hickling and M. D. Ingram, “Contact glow-discharge electrolysis,” Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol. 60, pp. 783–793, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. L. Wang, “Aqueous organic dye discoloration induced by contact glow discharge electrolysis,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 171, no. 1–3, pp. 577–581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. Y. Liu and X. Jiang, “Plasma-induced degradation of chlorobenzene in aqueous solution,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. K. Azumi, T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, and T. Ohmori, “Light emission from Pt during high-voltage cathodic polarization,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 146, no. 9, pp. 3374–3377, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. S. K. Sengupta, R. Singh, and A. K. Srivastava, “A study on the origin of nonfaradaic behavior of anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis: the relationship between power dissipated in glow discharges and nonfaradaic yields,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 145, no. 7, pp. 2209–2213, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. J. Gong, J. Wang, W. Xie, and W. Cai, “Enhanced degradation of aqueous methyl orange by contact glow discharge electrolysis using Fe2+ as catalyst,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1749–1755, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  210. J. Gao, Z. Hu, X. Wang, J. Hou, X. Lu, and J. Kang, “Oxidative degradation of acridine orange induced by plasma with contact glow discharge electrolysis,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 390, no. 1-2, pp. 154–158, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. J. Gao, X. Wang, Z. Hu et al., “Plasma degradation of dyes in water with contact glow discharge electrolysis,” Water Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. J. Gao, Y. Liu, W. Yang, L. Pu, J. Yu, and Q. Lu, “Oxidative degradation of phenol in aqueous electrolyte induced by plasma from a direct glow discharge,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 533–538, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. P. Bruggeman, D. Schram, M. Á. González, R. Rego, M. G. Kong, and C. Leys, “Characterization of a direct dc-excited discharge in water by optical emission spectroscopy,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 2, Article ID 025017, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. K.-Y. Shih and B. R. Locke, “Effects of electrode protrusion length, pre-existing bubbles, solution conductivity and temperature, on liquid phase pulsed electrical discharge,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 729–740, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. T. Maehara, K. Nishiyama, S. Onishi et al., “Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 174, no. 1–3, pp. 473–476, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. S. Mukasa, T. Maehara, S. Nomura et al., “Growth of bubbles containing plasma in water by high-frequency irradiation,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 53, no. 15-16, pp. 3067–3074, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. T. Maehara, S. Honda, C. Inokuchi et al., “Influence of conductivity on the generation of a radio frequency plasma surrounded by bubbles in water,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, Article ID 034016, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. T. Maehara, H. Toyota, M. Kuramoto et al., “Radio frequency plasma in water,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  219. T. Maehara, I. Miyamoto, K. Kurokawa et al., “Degradation of methylene blue by RF plasma in water,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 467–482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. S. Nomura, H. Toyota, S. Mukasa et al., “Discharge characteristics of microwave and high-frequency in-liquid plasma in water,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 1, no. 4, Article ID 046002, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  221. S. Nomura, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota et al., “Characteristics of in-liquid plasma in water under higher pressure than atmospheric pressure,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, Article ID 034012, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. S. Mukasa, S. Nomura, H. Toyota, T. Maehara, and H. Yamashita, “Internal conditions of a bubble containing radio-frequency plasma in water,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, Article ID 034020, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. A. Kawashima, H. Toyota, S. Nomura et al., “27.12 MHz plasma generation in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 101, no. 9, Article ID 093303, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. T. Maehara, A. Kawashima, A. Iwamae et al., “Spectroscopic measurements of high frequency plasma in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Physics of Plasmas, vol. 16, no. 3, Article ID 033503, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. A. E. E. Putra, S. Nomura, S. Mukasa, and H. Toyota, “Hydrogen production by radio frequency plasma stimulation in methane hydrate at atmospheric pressure,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, no. 21, pp. 16000–16005, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. Y. Hattori, S. Nomura, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota, T. Inoue, and T. Usui, “Synthesis of tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles by radio frequency plasma in water,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 578, pp. 148–152, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. S. Mukasa, S. Nomura, and H. Toyota, “Observation of microwave in-liquid plasma using high-speed camera,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 6015–6021, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. S. Mukasa, S. Nomura, H. Toyota, T. Maehara, F. Abe, and A. Kawashima, “Temperature distributions of radio-frequency plasma in water by spectroscopic analysis,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 106, no. 11, Article ID 113302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. Y. Hattori, S. Mukasa, S. Nomura, and H. Toyota, “Optimization and analysis of shape of coaxial electrode for microwave plasma in water,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 107, no. 6, Article ID 063305, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. Y. Hattori, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota, T. Inoue, and S. Nomura, “Synthesis of zinc and zinc oxide nanoparticles from zinc electrode using plasma in liquid,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 188–190, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. Y. Hattori, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota, H. Yamashita, and S. Nomura, “Improvement in preventing metal contamination from an electrode used for generating microwave plasma in liquid,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 8-9, pp. 2140–2145, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. Y. Hattori, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota, and S. Nomura, “Electrical breakdown of microwave plasma in water,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1050–1054, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. Y. Hattori, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota, T. Inoue, and S. Nomura, “Continuous synthesis of magnesium-hydroxide, zinc-oxide, and silver nanoparticles by microwave plasma in water,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 131, no. 1-2, pp. 425–430, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. Y. Hattori, S. Nomura, S. Mukasa, H. Toyota, T. Inoue, and T. Kasahara, “Synthesis of tungsten trioxide nanoparticles by microwave plasma in liquid and analysis of physical properties,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 560, pp. 105–110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. H. Toyota, S. Nomura, S. Mukasa, H. Yamashita, T. Shimo, and S. Okuda, “A consideration of ternary C–H–O diagram for diamond deposition using microwave in-liquid and gas phase plasma,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1255–1258, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. T. Yonezawa, A. Hyono, S. Sato, and O. Ariyada, “Preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by using microwave-induced plasma in liquid,” Chemistry Letters, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 783–785, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. S. Sato, K. Mori, O. Ariyada, H. Atsushi, and T. Yonezawa, “Synthesis of nanoparticles of silver and platinum by microwave-induced plasma in liquid,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 5, pp. 955–958, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. T. Ishijima, H. Hotta, H. Sugai, and M. Sato, “Multibubble plasma production and solvent decomposition in water by slot-excited microwave discharge,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 12, Article ID 121501, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. S. Nomura, A. E. E. Putra, S. Mukasa, H. Yamashita, and H. Toyota, “Plasma decomposition of clathrate hydrates by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation at atmospheric pressure,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 4, no. 6, Article ID 066201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  240. H. Toyota, S. Nomura, and S. Mukasa, “A practical electrode for microwave plasma processes,” International Journal of Materials Science and Applications, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 83–88, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  241. S.-Y. Xie, Z.-J. Ma, C.-F. Wang et al., “Preparation and self-assembly of copper nanoparticles via discharge of copper rod electrodes in a surfactant solution: a combination of physical and chemical processes,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 177, no. 10, pp. 3743–3747, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. D. Delaportas, P. Svarnas, I. Alexandrou, A. Siokou, K. Black, and J. W. Bradley, “γ-Al2O3 nanoparticle production by arc-discharge in water: in situ discharge characterization and nanoparticle investigation,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 42, no. 24, Article ID 245204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. D. Delaportas, P. Svarnas, and I. Alexandrou, “Ta2O5 crystalline nanoparticle synthesis by DC anodic arc in water,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 157, no. 6, pp. K138–K143, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. M. Kobayashi, S.-M. Liu, S. Sato, H. Yao, and K. Kimura, “Optical evaluation of silicon nanoparticles prepared by arc discharge method in liquid nitrogen,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 6146–6152, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. D. Bera, S. C. Kuiry, M. McCutchen, S. Seal, H. Heinrich, and G. C. Slane, “In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles using arc-discharge in solution method,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 5152–5157, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. R. Sergiienko, E. Shibata, A. Zentaro, D. Shindo, T. Nakamura, and G. Qin, “Formation and characterization of graphite-encapsulated cobalt nanoparticles synthesized by electric discharge in an ultrasonic cavitation field of liquid ethanol,” Acta Materialia, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 3671–3680, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. R. Sergiienko, E. Shibata, Z. Akase, H. Suwa, T. Nakamura, and D. Shindo, “Carbon encapsulated iron carbide nanoparticles synthesized in ethanol by an electric plasma discharge in an ultrasonic cavitation field,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. R. Sergiienko, E. Shibata, S. Kim, T. Kinota, and T. Nakamura, “Nanographite structures formed during annealing of disordered carbon containing finely-dispersed carbon nanocapsules with iron carbide cores,” Carbon, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1056–1065, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. R. Sergiienko, S. Kim, E. Shibata, and T. Nakamura, “Structure of Fe-Pt alloy included carbon nanocapsules synthesized by an electric plasma discharge in an ultrasonic cavitation field of liquid ethanol,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 481–491, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. D. M. Gattia, M. Vittori Antisari, and R. Marazzi, “AC arc discharge synthesis of single-walled nanohorns and highly convoluted graphene sheets,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 25, Article ID 255604, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. L. Zhu, Z.-H. He, Z.-W. Gao, F.-L. Tan, X.-G. Yue, and J.-S. Chang, “Research on the influence of conductivity to pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharge in water,” Journal of Electrostatics, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. E. Shibata, R. Sergiienko, H. Suwa, and T. Nakamura, “Synthesis of amorphous carbon particles by an electric arc in the ultrasonic cavitation field of liquid benzene,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 885–888, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. R. A. Sergiienko, S. Kim, E. Shibata, Y. Hayasaka, and T. Nakamura, “Structure of graphite nanosheets formed by plasma discharge in liquid ethanol,” Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics, vol. 52, no. 5-6, pp. 278–290, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  254. K. Byrappa, S. Ohara, and T. Adschiri, “Nanoparticles synthesis using supercritical fluid technology—towards biomedical applications,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 299–327, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus