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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 376045, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/376045
Research Article

Morphosynthesis of Zn-Substituted Stoichiometric and Carbonate Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Their Cytotoxicity in Fibroblasts

1Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan
2Top Runner Incubation Center for Academia-Industry Fusion, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan

Received 18 August 2015; Revised 19 October 2015; Accepted 27 October 2015

Academic Editor: Ungyu Paik

Copyright © 2015 Tania Guadalupe Peñaflor Galindo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)3(OH)2) (HAp) is crystallographically and chemically similar to the human hard tissues and has been widely researched. The naturally formed HAp has some impurities of some ions, which provides the biocompatibility as well as the nanosized morphologies in the tissues. In this study, the morphosynthesis of zinc-substituted stoichiometric and carbonate hydroxyapatite (Zn:HAp and Zn:CAp) nanoparticles was investigated from the reagents of CaCl2, ZnCl2, and K2HPO4. The initial (Ca + Zn)/P ratios of 1.67 and 2.00 were adjusted by the initial ZnCl2 amount at the Zn/(Ca + Zn) concentration of 0.0−10 mol%. The crystalline sizes of the nanoparticles decreased with increasing the Zn ion amount, suggesting that the Zn substitution significantly suppressed the crystal growth. TEM images of the nanoparticles indicated that all the crystalline sizes are less than 100 nm and the needle-like shapes were significantly changed to spherical shapes with increasing the Zn ion substitution to resultantly exhibit the higher surface areas as well as the nanoparticle aggregation states. Furthermore, all the nanoparticle films electrically plated on a silicone substrate give no cytotoxicity, and the Zn:CAp nanoparticle films significantly provided the bioactive properties for fibroblast ingrowth, suggesting the effect of Zn and carbonate ions on the cytocompatibility.