Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 394827, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/394827
Research Article

PAMAM Dendrimers as Potential Carriers of Gadolinium Complexes of Iminodiacetic Acid Derivatives for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Radiopharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
2Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Radiopharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
3Department of Radiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Skłodowska-Curie 3, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland

Received 11 December 2014; Revised 3 February 2015; Accepted 3 February 2015

Academic Editor: Andrea Falqui

Copyright © 2015 Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Park, “Nanotechnology: what it can do for drug delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 120, no. 1-2, pp. 1–3, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. K. Sahoo and V. Labhasetwar, “Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 8, no. 24, pp. 1112–1120, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Aulenta, W. Hayes, and S. Rannard, “Dendrimers: a new class of nanoscopic containers and delivery devices,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1741–1771, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. D. Jang, K. M. Kamruzzaman, C. H. Lee, and I. K. Kang, “Bioinspired application of dendrimers: from bio-mimicry to biomedical applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. M. Naylor, W. A. Goddard III, G. E. Kiefer, and D. A. Tomalia, “Starburst dendrimers. 5. Molecular shape control,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 2339–2341, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Szymański, M. Markowicz, and E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, “Nanotechnology in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Dendrimers,” Nano, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 509–539, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Markowicz-Piasecka, E. Łuczak, M. Chałubiński, M. Broncel, E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, and J. Sikora, “Studies towards biocompatibility of PAMAM dendrimers—Overall hemostasis potential and integrity of the human aortic endothelial barier,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 473, no. 1-2, pp. 158–169, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Markowicz, P. Szymański, M. Ciszewski, A. Kłys, and E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, “Evaluation of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as potential carriers of iminodiacetic derivatives using solubility studies and 2D-NOESY NMR spectroscopy,” Journal of Biological Physics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 637–656, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Kesharwani, K. Jain, and N. K. Jain, “Dendrimer as nanocarrier for drug delivery,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 268–307, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. W. Schima, A. Mukerjee, and S. Saini, “Contrast-enhanced MR imaging,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 235–244, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Li, M. Beija, S. Laurent et al., “Macromolecular ligands for gadolinium MRI contrast agents,” Macromolecules, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 4196–4204, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C.-T. Yang and K.-H. Chuang, “Gd(III) chelates for MRI contrast agents: from high relaxivity to ‘smart’, from blood pool to blood-brain barrier permeable,” MedChemComm, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 552–565, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. V. P. Torchilin, “Multifunctional nanocarriers,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 58, no. 14, pp. 1532–1555, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Karwowski, M. Witczak, E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, and M. Studniarek, “Gadolinium Gd(III) complexes with derivatives of nitriloacetic acid: synthesis and biological properties,” Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica—Drug Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 535–541, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. Darras, M. Nelea, F. M. Winnik, and M. D. Buschmann, “Chitosan modified with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for magnetic resonance imaging of DNA/chitosan nanoparticles,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 1137–1146, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Sikora, M. Broncel, M. Markowicz, M. Chałubiński, K. Wojdan, and E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, “Short-term supplementation with Aronia melanocarpa extract improves platelet aggregation, clotting, and fibrinolysis in patients with metabolic syndrome,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 549–556, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Kostka, J. Para, and J. Sikora, “A multiparameter test of clot formation and fibrinolysis for in-vitro drug screening,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 611–618, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Glover and E. D. Warner, “The CLUE test. A multiparameter coagulation and fibrinolysis screening test using the platelet aggregometer,” The American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. He, K. Bremme, and M. Blombäck, “A laboratory method for determination of overall haemostatic potential in plasma. I. Method design and preliminary results,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 145–156, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Antovic, “The overall hemostasis potential: a laboratory tool for the investigation of global hemostasis,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 772–779, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Lottenberg, J. A. Hall, J. W. Fenton II, and C. M. Jackson, “The action of thrombin on peptide p-nitroanilide substrates: hydrolysis of Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-pNA and D-Phe-Pip-Arg-pNA by human α and γ and bovine α and β-thrombins,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 313–332, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. G. Leach, S. J. Karran, M. L. Wisbey, and L. H. Blumgart, “In vivo assessment of liver size in the rat,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 380–385, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. A. Bailey, R. H. Zidell, and R. W. Perry, “Relationships between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: what is the best analytical endpoint?” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 448–466, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Caravan, “Strategies for increasing the sensitivity of gadolinium based MRI contrast agents,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 512–523, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. A. Boswell, P. K. Eck, C. A. S. Regino et al., “Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of integrin alphavbeta3-targeted PAMAM dendrimers,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 527–539, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Ratzinger, P. Agrawal, W. Körner et al., “Surface modification of PLGA nanospheres with Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA for high-relaxivity MRI contrast agents,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 33, pp. 8716–8723, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Erdogan, Z. O. Medarova, A. Roby, A. Moore, and V. P. Torchilin, “Enhanced tumor MR imaging with gadolinium-loaded polychelating polymer-containing tumor-targeted liposomes,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 574–580, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M.-A. Fortin, R. M. Petoral Jr., F. Söoderlind et al., “Polyethylene glycol-covered ultra-small Gd2O3 nanoparticles for positive contrast at 1.5 T magnetic resonance clinical scanning,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 39, Article ID 395501, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Dadiani, E. Furman-Haran, and H. Degani, “The application of NMR in tumor angiogenesis research,” Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 27–44, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. D. Margerum, B. K. Campion, M. Koo et al., “Gadolinium(III) DO3A macrocycles and polyethylene glycol coupled to dendrimers. Effect of molecular weight on physical and biological properties of macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 249, no. 1, pp. 185–190, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Tan, Z. Ye, E.-K. Jeong, X. Wu, D. L. Parker, and Z.-R. Lu, “Synthesis and evaluation of nanoglobular macrocyclic Mn(II) chelate conjugates as non-gadolinium(III) MRI contrast agents,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 931–937, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Nwe, H. Xu, C. A. S. Regino et al., “A new approach in the preparation of dendrimer-based bifunctional diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid MR contrast agent derivatives,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1412–1418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. J. Lee, J. R. Jeong, S. C. Shin, J. C. Kim, Y. H. Chang, and Y. M. Chang, “Nanoparticles of magnetic ferric oxides encapsulated with PLGA and their application as MRI contrast agent,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 272, pp. 2432–2433, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. L. Doiron, K. Chu, A. Ali, and L. Brannon-Peppas, “Preparation and initial characterization of biodegradable particles containing gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent for enhanced MRI,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 45, pp. 17232–17237, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. O. Brass, J. Belleville, V. Sabattier, and C. Corot, “Effect of ioxaglate—an ionic low osmolar contrast medium—on fibrin polymerization in vitro,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 689–697, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus