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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 536801, 12 pages
Research Article

Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Protein Adsorption of Titanium Surface by Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

1Department of Implant Dentistry, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081, China
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Received 27 August 2015; Accepted 21 October 2015

Academic Editor: Daniel S. Oh

Copyright © 2015 Shengnan Jia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study was to investigate a novel and convenient method of chemical treatment to modify the hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces and machined titanium surfaces were treated with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution. The wetting behavior of both kinds of surfaces was measured by water contact angle (WCA) test. The surface microstructure was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy. The elemental compositions of the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The protein adsorption analysis was performed with fibronectin. Results showed that, after 1 M NaHCO3 treatment, the hydrophilicity of both SLA and machined surfaces was enhanced. No significant microstructural change presented on titanium surfaces after NaHCO3 treatment. The deprotonation and ion exchange activities might cause the enhanced hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. The increased protein adsorption of NaHCO3-treated SLA surfaces might indicate their improved tissue-integration in clinical use.