Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 545818, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/545818
Research Article

Achieving Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by TiCl4/Al2O3 Doped TiO2 Nanotube Array Photoelectrodes

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Energy IT, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701, Republic of Korea

Received 9 January 2015; Revised 5 April 2015; Accepted 12 April 2015

Academic Editor: Neeraj Dwivedi

Copyright © 2015 Jin Soo Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. O'Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6346, pp. 737–740, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Lee and J. Kim, “Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by UV–O3 treatment of TiO2 layer,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 404–408, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Dürr, A. Schmid, M. Obermaier, S. Rosselli, A. Yasuda, and G. Nelles, “Low-temperature fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells by transfer of composite porous layers,” Nature Materials, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 607–611, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Grätzel, “Photoelectrochemical cells,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 338–344, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N.-G. Park, G. Schlichthorl, J. van de Lagrmatt, H. M. Cheong, A. Mascarenhas, and A. J. Frank, “Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells: structural and photoelectrochemical characterization of nanocrystalline electrodes formed from the hydrolysis of TiCl4,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 103, no. 17, pp. 3308–3314, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Grätzel, “Conversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 164, no. 1–3, pp. 3–14, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose, and C. A. Grimes, “Long vertically aligned titania nanotubes on transparent conducting oxide for highly efficient solar cells,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 592–597, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Liu and E. S. Aydil, “Growth of oriented single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods on transparent conducting substrates for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 11, pp. 3985–3990, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. X. Feng, K. Shankar, O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 3781–3786, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. K. Mor, O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose, K. Shankar, and C. A. Grimes, “A review on highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: fabrication, material properties, and solar energy applications,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 14, pp. 2011–2075, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Shankar, G. K. Mor, H. E. Prakasam et al., “Highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays up to 220 μm in length: use in water photoelectrolysis and dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 6, Article ID 065707, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Kuang, J. Brillet, P. Chen et al., “Application of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1113–1116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Kay, I. Rodicio et al., “Conversion of light to electricity by cis-X2bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II) charge-transfer sensitizers (X = Cl, Br, I, CN, and SCN) on nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 115, no. 14, pp. 6382–6390, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. J. Barbé, F. Arendse, P. Comte et al., “Nanocrystalline titanium oxide electrodes for photovoltaic applications,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 3157–3171, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Roy, D. Kim, I. Paramasivam, and P. Schmuki, “Improved efficiency of TiO2 nanotubes in dye sensitized solar cells by decoration with TiO2 nanoparticles,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1001–1004, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. C. O'Regan, J. R. Durrant, P. M. Sommeling, and N. J. Bakkeret, “Influence of the TiCl4 treatment on nanocrystalline TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells. 2. Charge density, band edge shifts, and quantification of recombination losses at short circuit,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 37, pp. 14001–14010, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. P. Wang and H. S. Teng, “Zinc-doping in TiO2 films to enhance electron transport in dye-sensitized,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 11, no. 41, pp. 9489–9496, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and C. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 41, pp. 4087–4108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. H. Ko, Y. C. Lee, and Y. J. Jung, “Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) by doping of metal ions,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 283, no. 2, pp. 482–487, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Palomares, J. N. Clifford, S. A. Haque, T. Lutz, and J. R. Durrant, “Slow charge recombination in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) using Al2O3 coated nanoporous TiO2 films,” Chemical Communications, no. 14, pp. 1464–1465, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S.-M. Yong, T. Nikolay, B. T. Ahn, and D. K. Kim, “One-dimensional WO3 nanorods as photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 547, pp. 113–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. S. Jin, K. H. Kim, S. J. Park, H. H. Yoon, and H. W. Choi, “Properties of TiO2 films prepared for use in dye-sensitized solar cells by using the Sol-gel method at different catalyst concentrations,” Journal of the Korean Physical Society, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1049–1053, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. H. Lee, S. Y. Chae, Y. J. Hwang, K. K. Koo, and O. S. Joo, “Influence of TiO2 nanotube morphology and TiCl4 treatment on the charge transfer in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Applied Physics A, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 733–737, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. T. H. Meen, Y. T. Jhuo, S. M. Chao et al., “Effect of TiO2 nanotubes with TiCl4 treatment on the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, article 579, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. P. M. Sommeling, B. C. O'Regan, R. R. Haswell et al., “Influence of a TiCl4 post-treatment on nanocrystalline TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 39, pp. 19191–19197, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. H. Yang, C. Bark, K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes treated with TiCl4,” Materials, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 3522–3532, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Zhong, J. Shi, W. Zhang, H. Han, and C. Li, “Charge recombination reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells by depositing ultrapure TiO2 nanoparticles on ‘inert’ BaTiO3 films,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 176, no. 14, pp. 1115–1122, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. W. Xu, S. Dai, L. Hu et al., “Influence of different surface modifications on the photovoltaic performance and dark current of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Plasma Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 556–559, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S.-Q. Fan, B. Fang, H. Choi et al., “Efficiency improvement of dye-sensitized tandem solar cell by increasing the photovoltage of the back sub-cell,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 55, no. 15, pp. 4642–4646, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus