(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 3: Time versus force graphs comparing different fracture features of capped and uncapped fibrils for time. Both (a) and (b) show the results of SMD simulation with a pulling rate of 0.001 Å/ps for the capped model and the uncapped model, respectively. Panels (c) and (d) show the results for the capped model and the uncapped model, respectively, at a pulling rate of 0.005 Å/ps. Fracture processes over time are indicated by the downward arrows, which are marked with , , , and .