Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3795976, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3795976
Review Article

Polymer-Ceramic Bionanocomposites for Dental Application

1Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714, Republic of Korea
2Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714, Republic of Korea
3Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea

Received 18 December 2015; Accepted 2 February 2016

Academic Editor: Carmen del Hoyo Martinez

Copyright © 2016 Jung-Hwan Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. K. Carrow and A. K. Gaharwar, “Bioinspired polymeric nanocomposites for regenerative medicine,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 216, no. 3, pp. 248–264, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Komarneni, “Nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1219–1230, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. K. Gaharwar, N. A. Peppas, and A. Khademhosseini, “Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 441–453, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. Ojijo and S. Sinha Ray, “Processing strategies in bionanocomposites,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 38, no. 10-11, pp. 1543–1589, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M.-H. Chen, “Update on dental nanocomposites,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 549–560, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. M. Galler, R. N. D'Souza, J. D. Hartgerink, and G. Schmalz, “Scaffolds for dental pulp tissue engineering,” Advances in Dental Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 333–339, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Bhattacharjee, B. Kundu, D. Naskar et al., “Potential of inherent RGD containing silk fibroin-poly (Є-caprolactone) nanofibrous matrix for bone tissue engineering,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 525–540, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J.-J. Kim, S.-H. Bang, A. El-Fiqi, and H.-W. Kim, “Fabrication of nanofibrous macroporous scaffolds of poly(lactic acid) incorporating bioactive glass nanoparticles by camphene-assisted phase separation,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 1092–1101, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J.-E. Won, M. A. Mateos-Timoneda, O. Castano et al., “Fibronectin immobilization on to robotic-dispensed nanobioactive glass/polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 935–942, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. R. Paul and L. M. Robeson, “Polymer nanotechnology: nanocomposites,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 15, pp. 3187–3204, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Hasook, S. Tanoue, Y. Lemoto, and T. Unryu, “Characterization and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ϵ-caprolactone)/organoclay nanocomposites prepared by melt compounding,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1001–1007, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. J. Park, E. J. Yu, W.-K. Lee, and C.-S. Ha, “Mechanical properties and degradation studies of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50/graphene oxide nanocomposite films,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 48–54, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. P. Wei, Fracture Mechanics: Integration of Mechanics, Materials Science and Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2010.
  14. Y.-L. Liang, The toughening mechanisms in epoxy-silica nanocomposites and hybrid epoxy-silica-rubber nanocomposites [Ph.D. thesis], Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa, USA, 2008.
  15. Y. Li, C. Han, X. Zhang, J. Bian, and L. Han, “Rheology, mechanical properties, and biodegradation of poly(ε-caprolactone)/silica nanocomposites,” Polymer Composites, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1620–1628, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. B. Dorj, J. E. Won, J. H. Kim, S. J. Choi, U. S. Shin, and H. W. Kim, “Robocasting nanocomposite scaffolds of poly(caprolactone)/hydroxyapatite incorporating modified carbon nanotubes for hard tissue reconstruction,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 1670–1681, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. Valsami-Jones and I. Lynch, “How safe are nanomaterials?” Science, vol. 350, no. 6259, pp. 388–389, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Schexnailder and G. Schmidt, “Nanocomposite polymer hydrogels,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 287, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Chae, H. Yang, F. Ko, and T. Troczynski, “Bio-inspired dicalcium phosphate anhydrate/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite fibrous scaffolds for hard tissue regeneration: in situ synthesis and electrospinning,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 514–522, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Rezwan, Q. Z. Chen, J. J. Blaker, and A. R. Boccaccini, “Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer/inorganic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 3413–3431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. A. L. Bassett, “Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 387–393, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S.-H. Jegal, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Kim et al., “Functional composite nanofibers of poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) containing gelatin-apatite bone mimetic precipitate for bone regeneration,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1609–1617, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. K. Singh, K. D. Patel, J. H. Lee et al., “Potential of magnetic nanofiber scaffolds with mechanical and biological properties applicable for bone regeneration,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 4, Article ID e91584, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Lee, S. Lee, S. Uthaman et al., “Biomedical applications of magnetically functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid nanofibers,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 13661–13677, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J.-J. Kim, R. K. Singh, S.-J. Seo, T. Kim, E. Lee, and H. Kim, “Magnetic scaffolds of polycaprolactone with functionalized magnetite nanoparticles: physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties effective for bone regeneration,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 33, pp. 17325–17336, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. H. M. Yun, E. S. Lee, M. J. Kim et al., “Magnetic nanocomposite scaffold-induced stimulation of migration and odontogenesis of human dental pulp cells through integrin signaling pathways,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 9, Article ID e0138614, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Wan and B. Chen, “Poly(ε-caprolactone)/graphene oxide biocomposites: mechanical properties and bioactivity,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 6, no. 5, Article ID 055010, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. A. M. Pinto, I. C. Gonçalves, and F. D. Magalhães, “Graphene-based materials biocompatibility: a review,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 111, pp. 188–202, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. C. Lee, C. H. Y. X. Lim, H. Shi et al., “Origin of enhanced stem cell growth and differentiation on graphene and graphene oxide,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 7334–7341, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. R. Nayak, H. Andersen, V. S. Makam et al., “Graphene for controlled and accelerated osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 4670–4678, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Xavier, P. Desai, V. Varanasi, I. Al-Hashimi, and A. Gaharwar, “Advanced nanomaterials: promises for improved dental tissue regeneration,” in Nanotechnology in Endodontics, A. Kishen, Ed., pp. 5–22, Springer, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  32. U. S. Shin, I.-K. Yoon, G.-S. Lee, W.-C. Jang, J. C. Knowles, and H.-W. Kim, “Carbon nanotubes in nanocomposites and hybrids with hydroxyapatite for bone replacements,” Journal of Tissue Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, Article ID 674287, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Meng, L. Song, J. Meng et al., “Using single-walled carbon nanotubes nonwoven films as scaffolds to enhance long-term cell proliferation in vitro,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 298–306, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Hu, Y. Ni, V. Montana, R. C. Haddon, and V. Parpura, “Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes as substrates for neuronal growth,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 507–511, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. S. Harrison and A. Atala, “Carbon nanotube applications for tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 344–353, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G.-Z. Jin, M. Kim, U. S. Shin, and H.-W. Kim, “Effect of carbon nanotube coating of aligned nanofibrous polymer scaffolds on the neurite outgrowth of PC-12 cells,” Cell Biology International, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 741–745, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G.-Z. Jin, M. Kim, U. S. Shin, and H.-W. Kim, “Neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia neurons is enhanced on aligned nanofibrous biopolymer scaffold with carbon nanotube coating,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 501, no. 1, pp. 10–14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Searle, The Use of Metal Colloids in Health and Disease, vol. 75, EP Sutton, New York, NY, USA, 1919.
  39. L. Liu, J. Yang, J. Xie et al., “The potent antimicrobial properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles with excellent selectivity for Gram-positive bacteria over erythrocytes,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3834–3840, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. Chaloupka, Y. Malam, and A. M. Seifalian, “Nanosilver as a new generation of nanoproduct in biomedical applications,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 580–588, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. A. Khalil, H. Fouad, T. Elsarnagawy, and F. N. Almajhdi, “Preparation and characterization of electrospun PLGA/silver composite nanofibers for biomedical applications,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 3483–3493, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Jayakumar, M. Prabaharan, K. T. Shalumon, K. P. Chennazhi, and S. V. Nair, “Biomedical applications of polymer/silver composite nanofibers,” in Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Nanofibers, R. Jayakumar and S. Nair, Eds., pp. 263–282, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  43. S. Kasraei, L. Sami, S. Hendi, M.-Y. AliKhani, L. Rezaei-Soufi, and Z. Khamverdi, “Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus,” Restorative Dentistry Endodontics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. M. Goldberg, A. B. Kulkarni, M. Young, and A. Boskey, “Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization,” Frontiers in Bioscience—Elite, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 711–735, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. V. Dorozhkin, “Nanodimensional and nanocrystalline apatites and other calcium orthophosphates in biomedical engineering, biology and medicine,” Materials, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1975–2045, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Barus, M. Zanetti, M. Lazzari, and L. Costa, “Preparation of polymeric hybrid nanocomposites based on PE and nanosilica,” Polymer, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2595–2600, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Vallés Lluch, A. Campillo Fernández, G. Gallego Ferrer, and M. Monleón Pradas, “Bioactive scaffolds mimicking natural dentin structure,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 182–194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Vallés-Lluch, E. Novella-Maestre, M. Sancho-Tello, M. M. Pradas, G. G. Ferrer, and C. C. Batalla, “Mimicking natural dentin using bioactive nanohybrid scaffolds for dentinal tissue engineering,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2783–2793, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Vallés-Lluch, J. C. Rodríguez-Hernández, G. G. Ferrer, and M. M. Pradas, “Synthesis and characterization of poly(EMA-co-HEA)/SiO2 nanohybrids,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1446–1455, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. X. Yang, F. Yang, X. F. Walboomers, Z. Bian, M. Fan, and J. A. Jansen, “The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 247–257, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. C. Bottino, G. H. Yassen, J. A. Platt et al., “A novel three-dimensional scaffold for regenerative endodontics: materials and biological characterizations,” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. E116–E123, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. R. Saravana and R. Vijayalakshmi, “Nanotechnology in dentistry,” Indian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 62–65, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. W.-J. Bae, K.-S. Min, J.-J. Kim, J.-J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, and E.-C. Kim, “Odontogenic responses of human dental pulp cells to collagen/nanobioactive glass nanocomposites,” Dental Materials, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1271–1279, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G.-H. Kim, Y.-D. Park, S.-Y. Lee et al., “Odontogenic stimulation of human dental pulp cells with bioactive nanocomposite fiber,” Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 854–866, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Srinivasan, R. Jayasree, K. P. Chennazhi, S. V. Nair, and R. Jayakumar, “Biocompatible alginate/nano bioactive glass ceramic composite scaffolds for periodontal tissue regeneration,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 274–283, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. K. Su and C. Wang, “Recent advances in the use of gelatin in biomedical research,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2139–2145, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. S. Rungsiyanont, N. Dhanesuan, S. Swasdison, and S. Kasugai, “Evaluation of biomimetic scaffold of gelatin-hydroxyapatite crosslink as a novel scaffold for tissue engineering: biocompatibility evaluation with human PDL fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stromal cells, and primary bone cells,” Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. Mota, N. Yu, S. G. Caridade et al., “Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 4173–4180, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. F. Bauer, H. Ernst, U. Decker et al., “Preparation of scratch and abrasion resistant polymeric nanocomposites by monomer grafting onto nanoparticles, 1 FTIR and multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy to the characterization of methacryl grafting,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 201, no. 18, pp. 2654–2659, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. D. A. Terry, “Direct applications of a nanocomposite resin system: Part 1—the evolution of contemporary composite materials,” Practical Procedures & Aesthetic Dentistry, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 417–422, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. H. Dickens, G. M. Flaim, and S. Takagi, “Mechanical properties and biochemical activity of remineralizing resin-based Ca-PO4 cements,” Dental Materials, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 558–566, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. H. K. Xu, M. D. Weir, and L. Sun, “Calcium and phosphate ion releasing composite: effect of pH on release and mechanical properties,” Dental Materials, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 535–542, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. H. K. Xu, J. L. Moreau, L. Sun, and L. C. Chow, “Strength and fluoride release characteristics of a calcium fluoride based dental nanocomposite,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 32, pp. 4261–4267, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. H. H. K. Xu, J. L. Moreau, L. Sun, and L. C. Chow, “Novel CaF2 nanocomposite with high strength and fluoride ion release,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 739–745, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y.-L. Wang, B.-S. Lee, K.-C. Chang, H.-C. Chiu, F.-H. Lin, and C.-P. Lin, “Characterization, fluoride release and recharge properties of polymer-kaolinite nanocomposite resins,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 67, no. 15-16, pp. 3409–3416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus