Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 3840348, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3840348
Research Article

Effects of Different Montmorillonite Nanoclay Loading on Cure Behavior and Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA

Received 31 March 2016; Revised 6 June 2016; Accepted 19 June 2016

Academic Editor: Pashupati Pokharel

Copyright © 2016 Alfred Tcherbi-Narteh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Pavlidou and C. D. Papaspyrides, “A review on polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1119–1198, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Hussain, M. Hojjati, M. Okamoto, and R. E. Gorga, “Review article: polymer-matrix nanocomposites, processing, manufacturing, and application: an overview,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 40, no. 17, pp. 1511–1575, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Kornmann, M. Rees, Y. Thomann, A. Necola, M. Barbezat, and R. Thomann, “Epoxy-layered silicate nanocomposites as matrix in glass fibre-reinforced composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 2259–2268, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Alexandre and P. Dubois, “Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials,” Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–63, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Lan, P. D. Kaviratna, and T. J. Pinnavaia, “Epoxy self-polymerization in smectite clays,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 57, no. 6–8, pp. 1005–1010, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Kumar, K. H. Reddy, Y. V. M. Reddy, G. R. Reddy, and S. V. Naidu, “Improvement of tensile and flexural properties in epoxy/clay nanocomposites reinforced with weave glass fiber reel,” International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 854–862, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. V. Burmistr, K. M. Sukhyy, V. V. Shilov et al., “Synthesis, structure, thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites based on linear polymers and layered silicates modified by polymeric quaternary ammonium salts (ionenes),” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 26, pp. 12226–12232, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. H. Park and S. C. Jana, “Mechanism of exfoliation of nanoclay particles in epoxy-clay nanocomposites,” Macromolecules, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 2758–2768, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. A. Azeez, K. Y. Rhee, S. J. Park, and D. Hui, “Epoxy clay nanocomposites—processing, properties and applications: a review,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 308–320, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Kiliaris and C. D. Papaspyrides, “Polymer/layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites: an overview of flame retardancy,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 902–958, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Leszczyńska, J. Njuguna, K. Pielichowski, and J. R. Banerjee, “Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites with improved thermal properties: part II. Thermal stability of montmorillonite nanocomposites based on different polymeric matrixes,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 454, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Tcherbi-Narteh, M. Hosur, E. Triggs, and S. Jeelani, “Thermal stability and degradation of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy modified with different nanoclays exposed to UV radiation,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 759–770, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. P. Singh, M. Khait, S. C. Zunjarrao, C. S. Korach, and G. Pandey, “Environmental degradation and durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2010, Article ID 352746, 13 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. S. C. Woo, H. Zhu, C. K. Y. Leung, and J.-K. Kim, “Environmental degradation of epoxy-organoclay nanocomposites due to UV exposure: part II residual mechanical properties,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 2149–2155, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Q. Wang, C. Song, and W. Lin, “Study of the exfoliation process of epoxy-clay nanocomposites by different curing agents,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 511–517, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. I. Xidas and K. S. Triantafyllidis, “Effect of the type of alkylammonium ion clay modifier on the structure and thermal/mechanical properties of glassy and rubbery epoxy-clay nanocomposites,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 404–417, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. M. Hutchinson, S. Montserrat, F. Román, P. Cortés, and L. Campos, “Intercalation of epoxy resin in organically modified montmorillonite,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 3751–3763, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Tcherbi-Narteh, M. V. Hosur, E. Triggs, and S. Jelaani, “Effects of surface treatments of montmorillonite nanoclay on cure behavior of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol a epoxy resin,” Journal of Nanoscience, vol. 2013, Article ID 864141, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. F. Carrasco and P. Pagès, “Thermal degradation and stability of epoxy nanocomposites: influence of montmorillonite content and cure temperature,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1000–1007, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Montserrat, F. Román, J. M. Hutchinson, and L. Campos, “Analysis of the cure of epoxy based layered silicate nanocomposites: reaction kinetics and nanostructure development,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 923–938, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Pagès, T. Lacorte, M. Lipinska, and F. Carrasco, “Study of curing of layered silicate/trifunctional epoxy nanocomposites by means of FTIR spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 2107–2115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Tcherbi-Narteh, M. Hosur, E. Triggs, P. Owuor, and S. Jelaani, “Viscoelastic and thermal properties of full and partially cured DGEBA epoxy resin composites modified with montmorillonite nanoclay exposed to UV radiation,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Mittal, “Polypropylene-layered silicate nanocomposites: filler matrix interactions and mechanical properties,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 575–599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. ASTM, “Standard practice for plastics: dynamic mechanical properties: determination and report of procedures,” ASTM 4065, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Vyazovkin, A. K. Burnham, J. M. Criado, L. A. Pérez-Maqueda, C. Popescu, and N. Sbirrazzuoli, “ICTAC Kinetics Committee recommendations for performing kinetic computations on thermal analysis data,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 520, no. 1-2, pp. 1–19, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. J. Starink, “The determination of activation energy from linear heating rate experiments: a comparison of the accuracy of isoconversion methods,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 404, no. 1, pp. 163–176, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Román, S. Montserrat, and J. M. Hutchinson, “On the effect of montmorillonite in the curing reaction of epoxy nanocomposites,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y.-N. Chan, T.-Y. Juang, Y.-L. Liao, S. A. Dai, and J.-J. Lin, “Preparation of clay/epoxy nanocomposites by layered-double-hydroxide initiated self-polymerization,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 22, pp. 4796–4801, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. B. Tolle and D. P. Anderson, “The role of preconditioning on morphology development in layered silicate thermoset nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 89–100, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. W. Litchfield and D. G. Baird, “The rheology of high aspect ratio nanoparticles filled liquids,” Rheology Reviews, pp. 1–60, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. K. Beazley, Rheometry: Industrial Applications, Edited by K. Walters, Research Studies Press, Chichester, UK, 1980.
  32. L. Le Pluart, J. Duchet, H. Sautereau, P. Halley, and J.-F. Gerard, “Rheological properties of organoclay suspensions in epoxy network precursors,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 207–219, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. T. Knauert, J. F. Douglas, and F. W. Starr, “The effect of nanoparticle shape on polymer-nanocomposite rheology and tensile strength,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 1882–1897, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Krishnamoorti, J. Ren, and A. S. Silva, “Shear response of layered silicate nanocomposites,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 114, no. 11, pp. 4968–4973, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. F. Zhao, G. P. Zhang, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong, “Curing kinetics, mechanism and chemorheological behavior of methanol etherified amino/novolac epoxy systems,” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 95–106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. G. Lu, M. J. Shim, and S. W. Kim, “Curing reaction and phase change in a liquid crystalline monomer,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 223–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Barral, J. Cano, J. López et al., “Cure kinetics of amine-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol: a epoxy blended with poly(ether imide),” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 344, no. 1-2, pp. 127–136, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA, 1953.
  39. H. Cai, P. Li, G. Sui et al., “Curing kinetics study of epoxy resin/flexible amine toughness systems by dynamic and isothermal DSC,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 473, no. 1-2, pp. 101–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus