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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 4189456, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4189456
Research Article

Catalytic Synthesis of Substrate-Free, Aligned and Tailored High Aspect Ratio Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in an Ultrasonic Atomization Head CVD Reactor

1Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 5050, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar
3College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar

Received 16 November 2015; Revised 1 February 2016; Accepted 8 February 2016

Academic Editor: Stefano Bellucci

Copyright © 2016 Fahad Ali Rabbani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has proven its benchmark, over other methods, for the production of different types of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on commercial and lab scale. In this study, an injection vertical CVD reactor fitted with an ultrasonic atomization head was used in a pilot-plant scale (height 274 cm, radius 25 cm) for semicontinuous production of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). p-Xylene was used as a hydrocarbon precursor in which ferrocene was dissolved and provided the cracking catalyst. Atomization of the feed solution resulted in full and even dispersion of the catalytic solution. This dispersion led to the production of high aspect ratio MWCNTs (ranging from 8,000 to 12,000) at 850°C. Different experimental parameters affecting the quality and quantity of the produced CNTs were investigated. These included temperature, reaction time, and flow rate of the reaction and carrier gases. Different properties of the produced CNTs were characterized using SEM and TEM, while TGA was used to evaluate their purity. Specific surface area of selected samples was calculated by BET.