Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4804271, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4804271
Research Article

Effect of Aminosilane Modification on Nanocrystalline Cellulose Properties

1School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 27 May 2016; Revised 26 July 2016; Accepted 27 July 2016

Academic Editor: Zeeshan Khatri

Copyright © 2016 Nurul Hanisah Mohd et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. A. Bakar, A. Hassan, and A. F. Mohd Yusof, “The effect of oil extraction of the oil palm empty fruit bunch on the processability, impact, and flexural properties of PVC-U composites,” International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 627–641, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Fahma, S. Iwamoto, N. Hori, T. Iwata, and A. Takemura, “Isolation, preparation, and characterization of nanofibers from oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB),” Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 977–985, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Sun, J. M. Fang, L. Mott, and J. Bolton, “Fractional isolation and characterization of polysaccharides from oil palm trunk and empty fruit bunch fibres,” Holzforschung, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 253–260, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. H. Salehudin, E. Saleh, I. Ida, S. Nur, and H. Mamat, “Cellulose nanofiber isolation and its fabrication into bio-polymer—a review,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Agriculture and Food Engineering International, 2012.
  5. B. Guo, L. Chang, and K. Xie, “Adsorption of carbon dioxide on activated carbon,” Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 223–229, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Kalia, S. Boufi, A. Celli, and S. Kango, “Nanofibrillated cellulose: surface modification and potential applications,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. 5–31, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Eyley and W. Thielemans, “Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals,” Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 7764–7779, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. L. Peng, N. Dhar, H. L. Liu, and K. C. Tam, “Chemistry and applications of nanocrystalline cellulose and its derivatives: a nanotechnology perspective,” The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1191–1206, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Brännvall, Aspects on strenght delivery and higher utilisation of the strength potential of kraft pulp fibres [Ph.D. thesis], Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology, 2007.
  10. X. Y. B. Eng, Hydrogels and aerogels based on chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystals [Ph.D. thesis], McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, 2014.
  11. C. Salas, T. Nypelö, C. Rodriguez-Abreu, C. Carrillo, and O. J. Rojas, “Nanocellulose properties and applications in colloids and interfaces,” Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 383–396, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Bendahou, A. Hajlane, A. Dufresne, S. Boufi, and H. Kaddami, “Esterification and amidation for grafting long aliphatic chains on to cellulose nanocrystals: A Comparative Study,” Research on Chemical Intermediates, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 4293–4310, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Musa, M. B. Ahmad, M. Z. Hussein, S. Mohd Izham, K. Shameli, and H. Abubakar Sani, “Synthesis of nanocrystalline cellulose stabilized copper nanoparticles,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2016, Article ID 2490906, 7 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. N. Lin, J. Huang, P. R. Chang, D. P. Anderson, and J. Yu, “Preparation, modification, and application of starch nanocrystals in nanomaterials: a review,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2011, Article ID 573687, 13 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Dong, A. A. Hirani, K. R. Colacino, Y. W. Lee, and M. Roman, “Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of cellulose nanocrystals,” Nano Life, vol. 2, no. 3, Article ID 1241006, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Yan, S. Li, M. Zhang, C. Li, F. Dong, and W. Li, “Characterization of surface acetylated nanocrystalline cellulose by single-step method,” BioResources, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 6330–6341, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Hokkanen, E. Repo, T. Suopajärvi, H. Liimatainen, J. Niinimaa, and M. Sillanpää, “Adsorption of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by amino modified nanostructured microfibrillated cellulose,” Cellulose, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1471–1487, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Kalia, A. Dufresne, B. M. Cherian et al., “Cellulose-based bio- and nanocomposites: a review,” International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2011, Article ID 837875, 35 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Kaushik, C. Fraschini, G. Chauve, J.-L. Putaux, and A. Moores, “Transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of cellulose nanocrystals,” in The Transmission Electron Microscope—Theory and Applications, K. Maaz, Ed., chapter 6, pp. 129–163, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Hajlane, Development of hierarchical cellulosic reinforcement for polymer composites [Licentiate thesis], Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden, 2014.
  21. H. Kargarzadeh, I. Ahmad, I. Abdullah, A. Dufresne, S. Y. Zainudin, and R. M. Sheltami, “Effects of hydrolysis conditions on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from kenaf bast fibers,” Cellulose, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 855–866, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Sanaeepur, A. Kargari, and B. Nasernejad, “Aminosilane-functionalization of a nanoporous Y-type zeolite for application in a cellulose acetate based mixed matrix membrane for CO2 separation,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 109, pp. 63966–63976, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Gebald, J. A. Wurzbacher, P. Tingaut, T. Zimmermann, and A. Steinfeld, “Amine-based nanofibrillated cellulose as adsorbent for CO2 capture from air,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 45, no. 20, pp. 9101–9108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Lu, P. Askeland, and L. T. Drzal, “Surface modification of microfibrillated cellulose for epoxy composite applications,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1285–1296, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Zhang, Y. She, S. Song, H. Chen, and J. Pu, “Improvements of mechanical properties and specular gloss of polyurethane by modified nanocrystalline cellulose,” BioResources, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 5190–5199, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. She, H. Zhang, S. Song, Q. Lang, and J. Pu, “Preparation and characterization of waterborne polyurethane modified by nanocrystalline cellulose,” BioResources, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 2594–2604, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Ngadi and N. S. Lani, “Extraction and characterization of cellulose from empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber,” Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 35–39, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. M. Sheltami, I. Abdullah, I. Ahmad, A. Dufresne, and H. Kargarzadeh, “Extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from mengkuang leaves (Pandanus tectorius),” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 772–779, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Abdelmouleh, S. Boufi, M. N. Belgacem, A. P. Duarte, A. Ben Salah, and A. Gandini, “Modification of cellulosic fibres with functionalised silanes: development of surface properties,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 43–54, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Xie, C. A. S. Hill, Z. Xiao, H. Militz, and C. Mai, “Silane coupling agents used for natural fiber/polymer composites: a review,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 806–819, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Segal, J. Creely, A. Martin, and C. Conrad, “An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the x-ray diffractometer,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 786–794, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. Kumar, Y. S. Negi, V. Choudhary, and N. K. Bhardwaj, “Characterization of cellulose nanocrystals produced by acid-hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse as agro-waste,” Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  33. H. Zhao, Y. Ma, J. Tang, J. Hu, and H. Liu, “Influence of the solvent properties on MCM-41 surface modification of aminosilanes,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 740–749, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Rachini, M. Le Troedec, C. Peyratout, and A. Smith, “Chemical modification of hemp fibers by silane coupling agents,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 601–610, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Valadez-Gonzalez, J. M. Cervantes-Uc, R. Olayo, and P. J. Herrera-Franco, “Chemical modification of henequen fibers with an organosilane coupling agent,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 321–331, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Agrawal, N. S. Saxena, K. B. Sharma, S. Thomas, and M. S. Sreekala, “Activation energy and crystallization kinetics of untreated and treated oil palm fibre reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 277, no. 1-2, pp. 77–82, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Samzadeh-Kermani and N. Esfandiary, “Synthesis and characterization of new biodegradable chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocomposite,” Advances in Nanoparticles, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 18–26, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. C. Tian, S. Fu, J. Chen, Q. Meng, and L. A. Lucia, “Graft polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone to cellulose nanocrystals and optimization of grafting conditions utilizing a response surface methodology,” Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal (NPPRJ), vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 58–68, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. S. Nazir, B. A. Wahjoedi, A. W. Yussof, and M. A. Abdullah, “Eco-friendly extraction and characterization of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches,” BioResources, vol. 8, no. 2, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. F. Rosa, E. S. Medeiros, J. A. Malmonge et al., “Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 83–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Tian, S. Fu, J. Chen, Q. Meng, and L. A. Lucia, “Graft polymerization of ε-caprolactone to cellulose nanocrystals and optimization of grafting conditions utilizing a response surface methodology,” Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 58–68, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  42. H. Zhang, Y. She, X. Zheng, H.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pu, “Optical and mechanical properties of polyurethane/surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose composites,” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1363–1372, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Wang, B. Tong, S. Hou, M. Li, and C. Shen, “Transcrystallization behavior at the poly (lactic acid)/sisal fibre biocomposite interface,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Dash and A. J. Ragauskas, “Synthesis of a novel cellulose nanowhisker-based drug delivery system,” RSC Advances, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 3403–3409, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. Chen, Q. Li, Y. Wang et al., “Comparative study of aerogels obtained from differently prepared nanocellulose fibers,” ChemSusChem, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 154–161, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus