Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 7061838, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7061838
Research Article

An Analysis of Nanoparticle Settling Times in Liquids

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka
2Department of Mathematics, University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka
3Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Received 10 September 2015; Revised 28 December 2015; Accepted 6 January 2016

Academic Editor: P. Davide Cozzoli

Copyright © 2016 D. D. Liyanage et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. X.-F. Yang and Z.-H. Liu, “Application of functionalized nanofluid in thermosyphon,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, article 494, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Kim, “Enhancement of critical heat flux in nucleate boiling of nanofluids: a state-of-art review,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, article 415, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Witharana, J. A. Weliwita, H. Chen, and L. Wang, “Recent advances in thermal conductivity of nanofluids,” Recent Patents on Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 198–207, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Buongiorno, D. C. Venerus, N. Prabhat et al., “A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 106, no. 9, Article ID 094312, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Lotfizadeh and T. Matsoukas, “A continuum Maxwell theory for the thermal conductivity of clustered nanocolloids,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 17, no. 6, article 262, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. Y. T. He, J. Wan, and T. Tokunaga, “Kinetic stability of hematite nanoparticles: the effect of particle sizes,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 321–332, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. R. Chae, Y. J. Yoon, and K. G. Ryu, “Development of modified stokes expression to model the behavior of expanded beds containing polydisperse resins for protein adsorption,” Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 999–1002, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Mann, P. Mueller, T. Hagemeier, C. Roloff, D. Thévenin, and J. Tomas, “Analytical description of the unsteady settling of spherical particles in Stokes and Newton regimes,” Granular Matter, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 629–644, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Zhiyao, W. Tingting, X. Fumin, and L. Ruijie, “A simple formula for predicting settling velocity of sediment particles,” Water Science and Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. Witharana, C. Hodges, D. Xu, X. Lai, and Y. Ding, “Aggregation and settling in aqueous polydisperse alumina nanoparticle suspensions,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 14, article 851, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Prasher, P. E. Phelan, and P. Bhattacharya, “Effect of aggregation kinetics on the thermal conductivity of nanoscale colloidal solutions (nanofluid),” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1529–1534, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Chen, S. Witharana, Y. Jin, C. Kim, and Y. Ding, “Predicting thermal conductivity of liquid suspensions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) based on rheology,” Particuology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Chen, S. Witharana, Y. Jin, C. Ding, and Y. Kim, “Predicting the thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on suspension viscosity,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability (ICIAFS '08), pp. 234–239, IEEE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, December 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. R. L. Hamilton and O. K. Crosser, “Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous two-component systems,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 187–191, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Israelachvili, “Contrasts between intermolecular, interparticle, and intersurface forces,” in Intermolecular and Surface Forces, pp. 205–222, Elsevier, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. L. H. Hanus, R. U. Hartzler, and N. J. Wagner, “Electrolyte-induced aggregation of acrylic latex. 1: dilute particle concentrations,” Langmuir, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 3136–3147, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Min, M. Akbulut, K. Kristiansen, Y. Golan, and J. Israelachvili, “The role of interparticle and external forces in nanoparticle assembly,” Nature Materials, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 527–538, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Pranami, “Understanding nanoparticle aggregation,” 2009, http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1856&context=etd.
  19. S. P. Jang and S. U. S. Choi, “Effects of various parameters on nanofluid thermal conductivity,” Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 617–623, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Rhodes, Introduction to Particle Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2013.
  21. D. E. Walsh and P. D. Rao, A Study of Factors Suspected of Influencing the Settling Velocity of Fine Gold Particles, vol. 76, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 1988.
  22. J. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Elsevier, 3rd edition, 2011.
  23. T. Brownian, Brownian Motion, no. 1, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA, 2011.
  24. S. Lee, S. U.-S. Choi, S. Li, and J. A. Eastman, “Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles,” Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 280–288, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 203, pp. 385–420, 1904. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. G. Bai, W. Jiang, and L. Chen, “Effect of interfacial thermal resistance on effective thermal conductivity of MoSi2/SiC composites,” Materials Transactions, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1247–1249, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Walsh and P. Rao, A Study of Factors Suspected of Influencing the Settling Velocity of Fine Gold Particles, O'Neill Research Laboratory, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 1988.
  28. N. Visaveliya and J. M. Köhler, “Control of shape and size of polymer nanoparticles aggregates in a single-step microcontinuous flow process: a case of flower and spherical shapes,” Langmuir, vol. 30, no. 41, pp. 12180–12189, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, and M. Yang, “Molecular dynamics simulation of effect of liquid layering around the nanoparticle on the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 811–821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. M. Haines and A. L. Mazzucato, “A proof of Einstein's effective viscosity for a dilute suspension of spheres,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1104.1102.
  31. J. A. Molina-Bolívar, F. Galisteo-González, and R. Hidalgo-Álvarez, “Cluster morphology of protein-coated polymer colloids,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 445–454, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. F. Richardson and W. N. Zaki, “Sedimentation and fluidisation: part I,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 75, no. 3, supplement, pp. S82–S100, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus