Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7201204, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7201204
Research Article

Penetration and Silencing Activity of VEGF Dicer Substrate siRNA Vectorized by Chitosan Nanoparticles in Monolayer Culture and a Solid Tumor Model In Vitro for Potential Application in Tumor Therapy

1Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Program of Biomedical Science, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 5 April 2016; Accepted 25 July 2016

Academic Editor: Hua Zou

Copyright © 2016 Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. M. Elbashir, J. Harborth, W. Lendeckel, A. Yalcin, K. Weber, and T. Tuschl, “Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6836, pp. 494–498, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. K. M. Leung and P. A. Whittaker, “RNA interference: from gene silencing to gene-specific therapeutics,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 222–239, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. S. Kang, Y. N. Yum, E. Han et al., “Evaluation of potential biomarkers for thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity using siRNA,” Biomolecules and Therapeutics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 197–202, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. C. Karagiannis and A. El-Osta, “RNA interference and potential therapeutic applications of short interfering RNAs,” Cancer Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 787–795, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. C. Cheng, T. B. Moore, and K. M. Sakamoto, “RNA interference and human disease,” Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 1-2, pp. 121–128, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. D. Rose, D.-H. Kim, M. Amarzguioui et al., “Functional polarity is introduced by Dicer processing of short substrate RNAs,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 33, no. 13, pp. 4140–4156, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D.-H. Kim, M. A. Behlke, S. D. Rose, M.-S. Chang, S. Choi, and J. J. Rossi, “Synthetic dsRNA Dicer substrates enhance RNAi potency and efficacy,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 222–226, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Siolas, C. Lerner, J. Burchard et al., “Synthetic shRNAs as potent RNAi triggers,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 227–231, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. C. C. Ryther, A. S. Flynt, J. A. Phillips, and J. G. Patton, “siRNA therapeutics: big potential from small RNAs,” Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 5–11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. M. Layzer, A. P. McCaffrey, A. K. Tanner, Z. Huang, M. A. Kay, and B. A. Sullenger, “In vivo activity of nuclease-resistant siRNAs,” RNA, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 766–771, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Choung, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, H.-O. Park, and Y.-C. Choi, “Chemical modification of siRNAs to improve serum stability without loss of efficacy,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 342, no. 3, pp. 919–927, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. D. Cotter, C. Hill, and R. P. Ross, “Food microbiology: bacteriocins: developing innate immunity for food,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 777–788, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Dash, F. Chiellini, R. M. Ottenbrite, and E. Chiellini, “Chitosan—a versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 981–1014, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Hamidi, A. Azadi, and P. Rafiei, “Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 1638–1649, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Z. Liu, Y. Jiao, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, “Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 1650–1662, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Illum, “Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1326–1331, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Malmo, K. M. Vårum, and S. P. Strand, “Effect of chitosan chain architecture on gene delivery: comparison of self-branched and linear chitosans,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 721–729, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. P. Strand, M. M. Issa, B. E. Christensen, K. M. Vårum, and P. Artursson, “Tailoring of chitosans for gene delivery: novel self-branched glycosylated chitosan oligomers with improved functional properties,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 3268–3276, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. Germershaus, S. Mao, J. Sitterberg, U. Bakowsky, and T. Kissel, “Gene delivery using chitosan, trimethyl chitosan or polyethylenglycol-graft-trimethyl chitosan block copolymers: establishment of structure-activity relationships in vitro,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 145–154, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Baldrick, “The safety of chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 290–299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Izquierdo, “Short interfering RNAs as a tool for cancer gene therapy,” Cancer Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 217–227, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. S. Kerbel, “Improving conventional or low dose metronomic chemotherapy with targeted antiangiogenic drugs,” Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 150–159, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. F. Fan, J. S. Wey, M. F. McCarty et al., “Expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 on human colorectal cancer cells,” Oncogene, vol. 24, no. 16, pp. 2647–2653, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. J. Hicklin and L. M. Ellis, “Role of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in tumor growth and angiogenesis,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1011–1027, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Calvani, D. Trisciuoglio, C. Bergamaschi, R. H. Shoemaker, and G. Melillo, “Differential involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in the survival of hypoxic colon cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 285–291, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Desoize, “Contribution of three-dimensional culture to cancer research,” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 36, no. 2-3, pp. 59–60, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. O. Hicks, F. B. Pruijn, J. R. Sturman, W. A. Denny, and W. R. Wilson, “Multicellular resistance to tirapazamine is due to restricted extravascular transport: a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study in HT29 multicellular layer cultures,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 18, pp. 5970–5977, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Calvo, C. Remuñán-López, J. L. Vila-Jato, and M. J. Alonso, “Novel hydrophilic chitosan-polyethylene oxide nanoparticles as protein carriers,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 125–132, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. M. Al-Abd, S. H. Lee, S. H. Kim et al., “Penetration and efficacy of VEGF siRNA using polyelectrolyte complex micelles in a human solid tumor model in-vitro,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 130–135, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Sonoda, H. Kobayashi, T. Kaku, T. Hirakawa, and H. Nakano, “Expression of angiogenesis factors in monolayer culture, multicellular spheroid and in vivo transplanted tumor by human ovarian cancer cell lines,” Cancer Letters, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 229–237, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. A. Papadimitriou, D. S. Achilias, and D. N. Bikiaris, “Chitosan-g-PEG nanoparticles ionically crosslinked with poly(glutamic acid) and tripolyphosphate as protein delivery systems,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 430, no. 1-2, pp. 318–327, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. I. Hajdu, M. Bodnár, G. Filipcsei et al., “Nanoparticles prepared by self-assembly of chitosan and poly-γ-glutamic acid,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 286, no. 3, pp. 343–350, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Abdul Ghafoor Raja, H. Katas, Z. Abd Hamid, and N. A. Razali, “Physicochemical properties and in vitro cytotoxicity studies of chitosan as a potential carrier for dicer-substrate siRNA,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 653892, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Csaba, M. Köping-Höggård, and M. J. Alonso, “Ionically crosslinked chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles for oligonucleotide and plasmid DNA delivery,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 382, no. 1-2, pp. 205–214, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. E. Martin and K. G. Rice, “Peptide-guided gene delivery,” The AAPS Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, article 3, pp. E18–E29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Buyens, B. Lucas, K. Raemdonck et al., “A fast and sensitive method for measuring the integrity of siRNA-carrier complexes in full human serum,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 67–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Haupenthal, C. Baehr, S. Kiermayer, S. Zeuzem, and A. Piiper, “Inhibition of RNAse A family enzymes prevents degradation and loss of silencing activity of siRNAs in serum,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 702–710, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Rodrigues, A. M. R. da Costa, and A. Grenha, “Chitosan/carrageenan nanoparticles: effect of cross-linking with tripolyphosphate and charge ratios,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 282–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. S. Soppimath, T. M. Aminabhavi, A. R. Kulkarni, and W. E. Rudzinski, “Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery devices,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 70, no. 1-2, pp. 1–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W.-J. Yi, J. Yang, C. Li et al., “Enhanced nuclear import and transfection efficiency of TAT peptide-based gene delivery systems modified by additional nuclear localization signals,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 125–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. P. Hickerson, A. V. Vlassov, Q. Wang et al., “Stability study of unmodified siRNA and relevance to clinical use,” Oligonucleotides, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 345–354, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Xu, Z. Wen, and Z. Xu, “Chitosan nanoparticles inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts through an antiangiogenic mechanism,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 5103–5109, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. J. Kim, B. Li, J. Winer et al., “Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth in vivo,” Nature, vol. 362, no. 6423, pp. 841–844, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Savić, L. Luo, A. Eisenberg, and D. Maysinger, “Micellar nanocontainers distribute to defined cytoplasmic organelles,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5619, pp. 615–618, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. M. Kelm, N. E. Timmins, C. J. Brown, M. Fussenegger, and L. K. Nielsen, “Method for generation of homogeneous multicellular tumor spheroids applicable to a wide variety of cell types,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus