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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 7602395, 17 pages
Review Article

Recent Advances in Unconventional Lithography for Challenging 3D Hierarchical Structures and Their Applications

1Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea
2School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea

Received 19 October 2015; Accepted 7 February 2016

Academic Editor: Bo Tan

Copyright © 2016 Jong Uk Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In nanoscience and nanotechnology, nanofabrication is critical. Among the required processes for nanofabrication, lithography is one of core issues. Although conventional photolithography with recent remarkable improvement has contributed to the industry during the past few decades, fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) nanostructure is still challenging. In this review, we summarize recent advances for the construction of 3D nanostructures by unconventional lithography and the combination of two top-down approaches or top-down and bottom-up approaches. We believe that the 3D hierarchical nanostructures described here will have a broad range of applications having adaptable levels of functional integration of precisely controlled nanoarchitectures that are required by not only academia, but also industry.