Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 7614753, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7614753
Review Article

Certain Aspects of Silver and Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Care: A Minireview

1Department of Neuropeptides, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, 5 Pawinskiego Street, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
2Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Warsaw, 82A Koszykowa Street, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland

Received 2 November 2015; Accepted 11 January 2016

Academic Editor: Piersandro Pallavicini

Copyright © 2016 Marek Konop et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. S. Devi and S. R. Joshi, “Evaluation of the antimicrobial potency of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by using an endophytic fungus, Cryptosporiopsis ericae PS4,” Journal of Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 667–674, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. I. Sondi and B. Salopek-Sondi, “Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 275, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. M. M. Abou El-Nour, A. Eftaiha, A. Al-Warthan, and R. A. A. Ammar, “Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 135–140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Murali Mohan, K. Lee, T. Premkumar, and K. E. Geckeler, “Hydrogel networks as nanoreactors: a novel approach to silver nanoparticles for antibacterial applications,” Polymer, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 158–164, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Ahamed, M. S. AlSalhi, and M. K. J. Siddiqui, “Silver nanoparticle applications and human health,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 411, no. 23-24, pp. 1841–1848, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Fong, “The use of silver products in the management of burn wounds: change in practice for the burn unit at Royal Perth Hospital,” Primary Intention: The Australian Journal of Wound Management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 16–22, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  7. J. J. Castellano, S. M. Shafii, F. Ko et al., “Comparative evaluation of silver-containing antimicrobial dressings and drugs,” International Wound Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 114–122, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Chen and H. J. Schluesener, “Nanosilver: a nanoproduct in medical application,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. R. Russell, W. B. Pathm, and A. D. Hugo, “Antimicrobial activity and action of silver,” in Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 31, pp. 351–371, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  10. P. Uttayarat, J. Eamsiri, T. Tangthong, and P. Suwanmala, “Radiolytic synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles for antibacterial wound dressings,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2015, Article ID 376082, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. B. G. Lansdown, “Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 33, pp. 17–34, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. E. Marx and D. J. Barillo, “Silver in medicine: the basic science,” Burns, vol. 40, supplement 1, pp. S9–S18, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. W. Alexander, “History of the medical use of silver,” Surgical Infections, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 289–292, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Fong and F. Wood, “Nanocrystalline silver dressings in wound management: a review,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 441–449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Silver, L. T. Phung, and G. Silver, “Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 627–634, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. J. Klasen, “Historical review of the use of silver in the treatment of burns. I. Early uses,” Burns, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 117–130, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. J. Barillo and D. E. Marx, “Silver in medicine: a brief history BC 335 to present,” Burns, vol. 40, supplement 1, pp. S3–S8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. L. Roe, “Collosol argentum and its ophthalmic uses,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, article 104, 1915. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Bandyopadhyaya, M. V. Sivaiah, and P. A. Shankar, “Silver-embedded granular activated carbon as an antibacterial medium for water purification,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 1177–1180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Jain and T. Pradeep, “Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. A. Oyanedel-Craver and J. A. Smith, “Sustainable colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filter for point-of-use water treatment,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 927–933, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. J. Barillo, M. Pozza, and M. Margaret-Brandt, “A literature review of the military uses of silver-nylon dressings with emphasis on wartime operations,” Burns, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. S24–S29, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. C. Abboud, J. C. Settle, T. B. Legare, J. E. Marcet, D. J. Barillo, and J. E. Sanchez, “Silver-based dressings for the reduction of surgical site infection: review of current experience and recommendation for future studies,” Burns, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. S30–S39, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. N. Bates, “Mercury amalgam dental fillings: an epidemiologic assessment,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 209, no. 4, pp. 309–316, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Xu, C. W. Gao, X. H. Li et al., “In vitro antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 270–274, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Dunn and V. Edwards-Jones, “The role of Acticoat with nanocrystalline silver in the management of burns,” Burns, vol. 30, supplement 1, pp. S1–S9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Ip, S. L. Lui, V. K. M. Poon, I. Lung, and A. Burd, “Antimicrobial activities of silver dressings: an in vitro comparison,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. J. Leaper, “Silver dressings: their role in wound management,” International Wound Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 282–294, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. B. Wright, K. Lam, and R. E. Burrell, “Wound management in an era of increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance: a role for topical silver treatment,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 572–577, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Q. L. Feng, J. Wu, G. Q. Chen, F. Z. Cui, T. N. Kim, and J. O. Kim, “A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 662–668, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Madhumathi, P. T. Sudheesh Kumar, S. Abhilash et al., “Development of novel chitin/nanosilver composite scaffolds for wound dressing applications,” The Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 807–813, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. U. Samuel and J. P. Guggenbichler, “Prevention of catheter-related infections: the potential of a new nano-silver impregnated catheter,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. 75–78, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Mijnendonckx, N. Leys, J. Mahillon, S. Silver, and R. Van Houdt, “Antimicrobial silver: uses, toxicity and potential for resistance,” BioMetals, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 609–621, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. R. Morones, J. L. Elechiguerra, A. Camacho et al., “The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2346–2353, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P.-O. Rujitanaroj, N. Pimpha, and P. Supaphol, “Wound-dressing materials with antibacterial activity from electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing silver nanoparticles,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 21, pp. 4723–4732, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Panáček, L. Kvítek, R. Prucek et al., “Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 33, pp. 16248–16253, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. L. Fox Jr. and S. M. Modak, “Mechanism of silver sulfadiazine action on burn wound infections,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 582–588, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Opasanon, P. Muangman, and N. Namviriyachote, “Clinical effectiveness of alginate silver dressing in outpatient management of partial-thickness burns,” International Wound Journal, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 467–471, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Muangman, C. Pundee, S. Opasanon, and S. Muangman, “A prospective, randomized trial of silver containing hydrofiber dressing versus 1% silver sulfadiazine for the treatment of partial thickness burns,” International Wound Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 271–276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Mabrouk, N. S. Boughdadi, H. A. Helal, B. M. Zaki, and A. Maher, “Moist occlusive dressing (Aquacel® Ag) versus moist open dressing (MEBO®) in the management of partial-thickness facial burns: a comparative study in Ain Shams University,” Burns, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 396–403, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. S. Kim, E. Kuk, K. N. Yu et al., “Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Shrivastava, T. Bera, A. Roy, G. Singh, P. Ramachandrarao, and D. Dash, “Characterization of enhanced antibacterial effects of novel silver nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 22510–22513, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Le Page, D. Raoult, and J.-M. Rolain, “Real-time video imaging as a new and rapid tool for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disc diffusion method: a paradigm for evaluating resistance to imipenem and identifying extended-spectrum β-lactamases,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 61–65, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Hudzicki, “Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test Protocol 2013,” http://www.microbelibrary.org/component/resource/laboratory-test/3189-kirby-bauer-disk-diffusion-susceptibility-test-protocol.
  45. A. R. Shahverdi, A. Fakhimi, H. R. Shahverdi, and S. Minaian, “Synthesis and effect of silver nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 168–171, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Rajawat and M. S. Qureshi, “Comparative study on bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles, synthesized using green technology, in combination with antibiotics on Salmonella typhi,” Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 480–485, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. A. M. Fayaz, K. Balaji, M. Girilal, R. Yadav, P. T. Kalaichelvan, and R. Venketesan, “Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. e103–e109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Thomas, A. P. Nair, S. Kr, J. Mathew, and R. Ek, “Antibacterial activity and synergistic effect of biosynthesized AgNPs with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant biofilm-forming coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical samples,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 449–460, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Z. H. Naqvi, U. Kiran, M. I. Ali et al., “Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 3187–3195, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. N. J. Stevens, O. Crespo-Biel, E. E. M. Van den Bosch et al., “The relationship between the antimicrobial effect of catheter coatings containing silver nanoparticles and the coagulation of contacting blood,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 3682–3690, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Roe, B. Karandikar, N. Bonn-Savage, B. Gibbins, and J.-B. Roullet, “Antimicrobial surface functionalization of plastic catheters by silver nanoparticles,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 869–876, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. D. Khare, S. S. Bukhari, A. Swann, P. Spiers, I. McLaren, and J. Myers, “Reduction of catheter-related colonisation by the use of a silver zeolite-impregnated central vascular catheter in adult critical care,” Journal of Infection, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. N. J. Stevens, S. Croes, R. S. Boersma et al., “Hydrophilic surface coatings with embedded biocidal silver nanoparticles and sodium heparin for central venous catheters,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1264–1269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. Akiyama and S. Okamoto, “Prophylaxis of indwelling urethral catheter infection: clinical experience with a modified Foley catheter and drainage system,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. B. Karchmer, E. T. Giannetta, C. A. Muto, B. A. Strain, and B. M. Farr, “A randomized crossover study of silver-coated urinary catheters in hospitalized patients,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 21, pp. 3294–3298, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. S. Boateng, K. H. Matthews, H. N. E. Stevens, and G. M. Eccleston, “Wound healing dressings and drug delivery systems: a review,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 2892–2923, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. D. Turner, “Interactive dressings used in the management of human soft tissue injuries and their potential in veterinary practice,” Veterinary Dermatology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 235–242, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Jeong, M. H. Kim, J. Jung, B. M. Min, and W. H. Park, “Effect of silk fibroin nanofibers containing silver sulfadiazine on wound healing,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp. 5277–5287, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. P. J. Finley, R. E. Huckfeldt, K. D. Walker, and L. P. Shornick, “Silver dressings improve diabetic wound healing without reducing bioburden,” Wounds—A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 293–301, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. H. Lin, W. S. Hsu, W. Y. Chung, T. H. Ko, and J. H. Lin, “Silver-based wound dressings reduce bacterial burden and promote wound healing,” International Wound Journal, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. Y.-H. Lin, W.-S. Hsu, W.-Y. Chung, T.-H. Ko, and J.-H. Lin, “Evaluation of various silver-containing dressing on infected excision wound healing study,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1375–1386, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. Archana, B. K. Singh, J. Dutta, and P. K. Dutta, “Chitosan-PVP-nano silver oxide wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 73, pp. 49–57, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. S. Anisha, R. Biswas, K. P. Chennazhi, and R. Jayakumar, “Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 62, pp. 310–320, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F.-L. Mi, Y.-B. Wu, S.-S. Shyu et al., “Control of wound infections using a bilayer chitosan wound dressing with sustainable antibiotic delivery,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 438–449, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. I. N. Ahamed, S. Sankar, P. M. Kashif, S. K. H. Basha, and T. P. Sastry, “Evaluation of biomaterial containing regenerated cellulose and chitosan incorporated with silver nanoparticles,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 72, pp. 680–686, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. C. Guthrie, K. R. Martin, C. Taylor et al., “A pre-clinical evaluation of silver, iodine and Manuka honey based dressings in a model of traumatic extremity wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus,” Injury, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1171–1178, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. Boonkaew, M. Kempf, R. Kimble, P. Supaphol, and L. Cuttle, “Antimicrobial efficacy of a novel silver hydrogel dressing compared to two common silver burn wound dressings: Acticoat and PolyMem Silver®,” Burns, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. J. L. Velázquez-Velázquez, A. Santos-Flores, J. Araujo-Meléndez et al., “Anti-biofilm and cytotoxicity activity of impregnated dressings with silver nanoparticles,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 49, pp. 604–611, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. J. Siegel, D. F. Herrera, and J. Gay, “Silver negative pressure dressing with vacuum-assisted closure of massive pelvic and extremity wounds,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 472, no. 3, pp. 830–835, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Wadhera and M. Fung, “Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, article 12, 2005, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0832g6d3. View at Google Scholar
  71. P. Chairuangkitti, S. Lawanprasert, S. Roytrakul et al., “Silver nanoparticles induce toxicity in A549 cells via ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 330–338, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Braydich-Stolle, S. Hussain, J. J. Schlager, and M.-C. Hofmann, “In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 412–419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 975–983, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Kempf, R. M. Kimble, and L. Cuttle, “Cytotoxicity testing of burn wound dressings, ointments and creams: a method using polycarbonate cell culture inserts on a cell culture system,” Burns, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 994–1000, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S.-B. Zou, W.-Y. Yoon, S.-K. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Z.-J. Cui, and W.-K. Kim, “Cytotoxicity of silver dressings on diabetic fibroblasts,” International Wound Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 306–312, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. F. Sambale, S. Wagner, F. Stahl, R. R. Khaydarov, T. Scheper, and D. Bahnemann, “Investigations of the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles on mammalian cell lines,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, Article ID 136765, 9 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. M. Pérez-Díaz, E. Alvarado-Gomez, M. Magaña-Aquino et al., “Anti-biofilm activity of chitosan gels formulated with silver nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 60, pp. 317–323, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and J. Behari, “Dose-dependent in-vivo toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticle in Wistar rats,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. B. G. Lansdown and A. Williams, “How safe is silver in wound care?” Journal of Wound Care, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 131–136, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B. Boonkaew, M. Kempf, R. Kimble, P. Supaphol, and L. Cuttle, “Antimicrobial efficacy of a novel silver hydrogel dressing compared to two common silver burn wound dressings: Acticoat and PolyMem Silver®,” Burns, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. B. G. Lansdown, “Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 33, pp. 17–34, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. M. H. Cavanagh, R. E. Burrell, and P. L. Nadworny, “Evaluating antimicrobial efficacy of new commercially available silver dressings,” International Wound Journal, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 394–405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. Burd, C. H. Kwok, S. C. Hung et al., “A comparative study of the cytotoxicity of silver-based dressings in monolayer cell, tissue explant, and animal models,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 94–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Dissemond, M. Augustin, S. A. Eming et al., “Modern wound care—practical aspects of non-interventional topical treatment of patients with chronic wounds,” Journal of the German Society of Dermatology, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 541–555, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. J. White, S. Fumarola, and J. Denyer, “Interim advice on silver dressings in paediatric wound and skin care,” British Journal of Nursing, vol. 20, supplement S11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus