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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 7851308, 9 pages
Research Article

Glycerine Treated Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites

1Advanced Structures and Composites Center, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
2The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), Tunus Caddesi, Kavaklıdere, 06100 Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Forest Industry Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, University of Bartin, 74100 Bartın, Turkey
4Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA

Received 20 January 2016; Revised 14 March 2016; Accepted 28 March 2016

Academic Editor: Wanshuang Liu

Copyright © 2016 Esra Erbas Kiziltas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) suspensions with glycerine. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer composites with different loadings of GNFC were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. The incorporation of GNFC increased tensile and flexural modulus of elasticity of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that as GNFC loading increased, the thermal stability of the composites decreased marginally. The incorporation of GNFC into the SMA copolymer matrix resulted in higher elastic modulus () and shear viscosities than the neat SMA copolymer, especially at low frequencies. The orientation of rigid GNFC particles in the composites induced a strong shear thinning behavior with an increase in GNFC loading. The decrease in the slope of elastic modulus with increasing GNFC loading suggested that the microstructural changes of the polymer matrix can be attributed to the incorporation of GNFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fracture surfaces show areas of GNFC agglomerates in the SMA matrix.