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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8584304, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8584304
Research Article

One-Step Synthesis of Copper and Cupric Oxide Particles from the Liquid Phase by X-Ray Radiolysis Using Synchrotron Radiation

1Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205, Japan
2Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
3Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology, 3-1-12, Yukihira, Suma, Kobe 654-0037, Japan

Received 28 September 2016; Accepted 22 November 2016

Academic Editor: Fuxiang Zhang

Copyright © 2016 Akinobu Yamaguchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The deposition of copper (Cu) and cupric oxide (Cu4O3, Cu2O, and CuO) particles in an aqueous copper sulfate (CuSO4) solution with additive alcohol such as methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and ethylene glycol has been studied by X-ray exposure from synchrotron radiation. An attenuated X-ray radiation time of 5 min allows for the synthesis of Cu, Cu4O3, Cu2O, and CuO nano/microscale particles and their aggregation into clusters. The morphology and composition of the synthesized Cu/cupric oxide particle clusters were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed that the clusters comprised cupric oxide core particles covered with Cu particles. Neither Cu/cupric oxide particles nor their clusters were formed without any alcohol additives. The effect of alcohol additives is attributed to the following sequential steps: photochemical reaction due to X-ray irradiation induces nucleation of the particles accompanying redox reaction and forms a cluster or aggregates by LaMer process and DLVO interactions. The procedure offers a novel route to synthesize the Cu/cupric oxide particles and aggregates. It also provides a novel additive manufacturing process or lithography of composite materials such as metal, oxide, and resin.