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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8659240, 9 pages
Research Article

Gel Based Sunscreen Containing Surface Modified TiO2 Obtained by Sol-Gel Process: Proposal for a Transparent UV Inorganic Filter

1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara-Jaú, Km 1, 14800-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
2Federal University of Sergipe, Campus Itabaiana, Avenida Vereador Olimpio Grande, s/n, 409500-000 Itabaiana, SE, Brazil

Received 28 November 2015; Accepted 3 February 2016

Academic Editor: Tuncay Ozel

Copyright © 2016 Marina Paiva Abuçafy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inorganic UV filters, as titanium dioxide (TiO2), have become attractive because of their role in protecting the skin against the damage caused by the continuous exposure to the sun. However, their high refractive index, responsible for a white residue when applied on the skin, has led to the development of alternative inorganic materials, such as TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus, the aim of this study was the development of transparent and stable gel formulations containing surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles for application in sunscreens. Also, the physical and chemical properties of formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated. The UV absorption spectroscopy analyses indicated that the formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles had a broad protection spectrum. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed that the use of PTSH surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles improved the transparency of the sunscreen formulations compared to that containing commercial ones. The rheology analyses showed that the amount of nanoparticles incorporated in the formulations influences the gel-like or liquid-like behavior. The results showed that the surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles are a promising innovative UV filter and the formulations containing these nanoparticles are interesting candidates for being used as sunscreen.