Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 9569236, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9569236
Research Article

Preparation and Viscoelastic Properties of Composite Fibres Containing Cellulose Nanofibrils: Formation of a Coherent Fibrillar Network

Tobias Moberg,1,2,3 Hu Tang,4 Qi Zhou,2,3,4 and Mikael Rigdahl1,2,3

1Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
2Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
3Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
4Royal Institute of Technology, School of Biotechnology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 15 March 2016; Revised 2 June 2016; Accepted 16 June 2016

Academic Editor: Ilker S. Bayer

Copyright © 2016 Tobias Moberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. J. Ragauskas, C. K. Williams, B. H. Davison et al., “The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5760, pp. 484–489, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Oksman, Y. Aitomäki, A. P. Mathew et al., “Review of the recent developments in cellulose nanocomposite processing,” Composites A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 83, pp. 2–18, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Thunwall, V. Kuthanová, A. Boldizar, and M. Rigdahl, “Film blowing of thermoplastic starch,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 583–590, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. J. Eichhorn, C. A. Baillie, N. Zafeiropoulos et al., “Current international research into cellulosic fibres and composites,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2107–2131, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Pääkko, M. Ankerfors, H. Kosonen et al., “Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1934–1941, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Isogai, T. Saito, and H. Fukuzumi, “TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 71–85, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Wågberg, G. Decher, M. Norgren, T. Lindström, M. Ankerfors, and K. Axnäs, “The build-up of polyelectrolyte multilayers of microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyelectrolytes,” Langmuir, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 784–795, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Ø. Eriksen, K. Syverud, and Ø. Gregersen, “The use of microfibrillated cellulose produced from kraft pulp as strength enhancer in TMP paper,” Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 299–304, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Taipale, M. Österberg, A. Nykänen, J. Ruokolainen, and J. Laine, “Effect of microfibrillated cellulose and fines on the drainage of kraft pulp suspension and paper strength,” Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1005–1020, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Henriksson, L. A. Berglund, P. Isaksson, T. Lindström, and T. Nishino, “Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1579–1585, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Ankerfors, T. Lindström, and D. Söderberg, “The use of microfibrillated cellulose in fine paper manufacturing—results from a pilot scale papermaking trial,” Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 476–483, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Aulin, M. Gällstedt, and T. Lindström, “Oxygen and oil barrier properties of microfibrillated cellulose films and coatings,” Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 559–574, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Fukuzumi, T. Saito, T. Iwata, Y. Kumamoto, and A. Isogai, “Transparent and high gas barrier films of cellulose nanofibers prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 162–165, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Siró, D. Plackett, M. Hedenqvist, M. Ankerfors, and T. Lindström, “Highly transparent films from carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose: the effect of multiple homogenization steps on key properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 2652–2660, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Klemm, F. Kramer, S. Moritz et al., “Nanocelluloses: a new family of nature-based materials,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 50, no. 24, pp. 5438–5466, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Chang and L. Zhang, “Cellulose-based hydrogels: present status and application prospects,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 40–53, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Jin, M. Kettunen, A. Laiho et al., “Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic nanocellulose aerogel membranes as bioinspired cargo carriers on water and oil,” Langmuir, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1930–1934, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Sehaqui, M. Salajková, Q. Zhou, and L. A. Berglund, “Mechanical performance tailoring of tough ultra-high porosity foams prepared from cellulose I nanofiber suspensions,” Soft Matter, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1824–1832, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K.-Y. Lee, Y. Aitomäki, L. A. Berglund, K. Oksman, and A. Bismarck, “On the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 105, pp. 15–27, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Abe, F. Nakatsubo, and H. Yano, “High-strength nanocomposite based on fibrillated chemi-thermomechanical pulp,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 69, no. 14, pp. 2434–2437, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Siró and D. Plackett, “Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review,” Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 459–494, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Jonoobi, A. P. Mathew, M. M. Abdi, M. D. Makinejad, and K. Oksman, “A comparison of modified and unmodified cellulose nanofiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) prepared by twin screw extrusion,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 991–997, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Ansari, M. Skrifvars, and L. Berglund, “Nanostructured biocomposites based on unsaturated polyester resin and a cellulose nanofiber network,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 117, pp. 298–306, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Boldizar, C. Klason, J. Kubát, P. Näslund, and P. Sáha, “Prehydrolyzed cellulose as reinforcing filler for thermoplastics,” International Journal of Polymeric Materials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 229–262, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. K. Pandey, A. N. Nakagaito, and H. Takagi, “Fabrication and applications of cellulose nanoparticle-based polymer composites,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Moberg and M. Rigdahl, “On the viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) suspensions,” Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, vol. 20, pp. 123–130, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Naderi, T. Lindström, and J. Sundström, “Carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose: rheological studies,” Cellulose, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1561–1571, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Jowkarderis and T. G. M. van de Ven, “Rheology of semi-dilute suspensions of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 123, pp. 416–423, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A.-H. Vesterinen, P. Myllytie, J. Laine, and J. Seppälä, “The effect of water-soluble polymers on rheology of microfibrillar cellulose suspension and dynamic mechanical properties of paper sheet,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 2990–2997, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Karppinen, A.-H. Vesterinen, T. Saarinen, P. Pietikäinen, and J. Seppälä, “Effect of cationic polymethacrylates on the rheology and flocculation of microfibrillated cellulose,” Cellulose, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1381–1390, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M.-P. Lowys, J. Desbrières, and M. Rinaudo, “Rheological characterization of cellulosic microfibril suspensions. Role of polymeric additives,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Moberg, M. Rigdahl, M. Stading, and E. Levenstam Bragd, “Extensional viscosity of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 409–412, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. Sakurada, Y. Nukushina, and T. Ito, “Experimental determination of the elastic modulus of crystalline regions in oriented polymers,” Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 57, no. 165, pp. 651–660, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. N. G. McCrum, C. P. Buckley, and C. B. Bucknall, Principles of Polymer Engineering, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  35. S. Iwamoto, A. Isogai, and T. Iwata, “Structure and mechanical properties of wet-spun fibers made from natural cellulose nanofibers,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 831–836, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. G. Torres-Rendon, F. H. Schacher, S. Ifuku, and A. Walther, “Mechanical performance of macrofibers of cellulose and chitin nanofibrils aligned by wet-stretching: a critical comparison,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 2709–2717, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. M. O. Håkansson, A. B. Fall, F. Lundell et al., “Hydrodynamic alignment and assembly of nanofibrils resulting in strong cellulose filaments,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article 4018, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Ansari, S. Galland, M. Johansson, C. J. G. Plummer, and L. A. Berglund, “Cellulose nanofiber network for moisture stable, strong and ductile biocomposites and increased epoxy curing rate,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 63, pp. 35–44, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Tang, N. Butchosa, and Q. Zhou, “A transparent, hazy, and strong macroscopic ribbon of oriented cellulose nanofibrils bearing poly(ethylene glycol),” Advanced Materials, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2070–2076, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Thunwall, A. Boldizar, M. Rigdahl et al., “Processing and properties of mineral-interfaced cellulose fibre composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 918–929, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. A. Barnes, J. F. Hutton, and K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology, chapter 7, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989.
  42. P. Gatenholm, H. Bertilsson, and A. Mathiasson, “Effect of chemical composition of interphase on dispersion of cellulose fibers in polymers. I. PVC-coated cellulose in polystyrene,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 197–208, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Takaichi, T. Saito, R. Tanaka, and A. Isogai, “Improvement of nanodispersibility of oven-dried TEMPO-oxidized celluloses in water,” Cellulose, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 4093–4103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. M. Dealey and K. F. Wissbrun, Melt Rheology and Its Role in Plastics Processing, Van Nostrand Reihold, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
  45. H. Bertilsson, On the transition to marked nonlinear viscoelasticity in solid polymer [Ph.D. thesis], Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1977.
  46. H. A. Barnes, A Handbook of Elementary Rheology, vol. 13, chapter 13, University of Wales, Cambrian Printers, Aberystwyth, UK, 2000.
  47. F. L. Matthews and R. D. Rawlings, Composite Materials: Engineering and Science, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1994.