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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1262309, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1262309
Research Article

Hybrids of Iron-Filled Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Anticancer Agents as Potential Magnetic Drug Delivery Systems: In Vitro Studies against Human Melanoma, Colon Carcinoma, and Colon Adenocarcinoma

1Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
2Biosystems Group Department of Automatics, Electronics and Informatics, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, Gliwice, Poland
3NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
4Mössbauer Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to SÅ‚awomir Boncel

Received 17 January 2017; Revised 9 April 2017; Accepted 15 June 2017; Published 31 July 2017

Academic Editor: Raul Arenal

Copyright © 2017 Sławomir Boncel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cell type, morphology, and functioning are key variables in the construction of efficient “drug-vehicle” hybrids in magnetic drug delivery. Iron-encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotubes (Fe@MWCNTs) appear as promising candidates for theranostics due to in situ chemical catalytic vapor deposition (c-CVD) synthesis, straightforward organic functionalization, and nanoneedle (1D) behavior. Here, model hybrids were synthesized by exploring C-sp2 chemistry ((1+2)-cycloaddition of nitrenes and amidation) of the outer MWCNT walls combined with anticancer agents, that is, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), purpurin (Purp), and 1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators (NIDIs), via linkers. Analyses of the Fe@MWCNT vehicles by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy revealed their morphology while Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of encapsulated ferromagnetic iron-based nanodomains. Cytotoxicity of the hybrids was studied using a 24 h MTS assay combined with the apoptosis and life cycle assays against human melanoma (Me45), colon carcinoma (HCT116+), and colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2). The cells had different sensitivity to the vehicles themselves as well as to the hybrids. MWCNT-based covalent hybrids of 5FU and Purp emerged as the most promising systems against Me45 and HCT116+ cell lines with the highest in vitro cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity. Furthermore, nanotubes bearing 4-nitro- and 4-(N-morpholinyl)-1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators appear as a promising candidate for the treatment of Caco-2.