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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017, Article ID 1564634, 13 pages
Review Article

Mechanisms of Cellular Effects Directly Induced by Magnetic Nanoparticles under Magnetic Fields

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
3France-China Bio-Mineralization and Nano-Structures Laboratory, Beijing, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Tao Song;

Received 13 February 2017; Revised 6 April 2017; Accepted 26 April 2017; Published 13 June 2017

Academic Editor: Paulo Cesar Morais

Copyright © 2017 Linjie Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with various magnetic fields could directly induce cellular effects. Many scattered investigations have got involved in these cellular effects, analyzed their relative mechanisms, and extended their biomedical uses in magnetic hyperthermia and cell regulation. This review reports these cellular effects and their important applications in biomedical area. More importantly, we highlight the underlying mechanisms behind these direct cellular effects in the review from the thermal energy and mechanical force. Recently, some physical analyses showed that the mechanisms of heat and mechanical force in cellular effects are controversial. Although the physical principle plays an important role in these cellular effects, some chemical reactions such as free radical reaction also existed in the interaction of MNPs with magnetic fields, which provides the possible explanation for the current controversy. It is anticipated that the review here could provide readers with a deeper understanding of mechanisms of how MNPs contribute to the direct cellular effects and thus their biomedical applications under various magnetic fields.