Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017, Article ID 4595384, 9 pages
Research Article

Synthesis of ZnO Nanopowders by the Homogeneous Precipitation Method: Use of Taguchi’s Method for Analyzing the Effect of Different Variables

1Programa de Doctorado en Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico
2Sección de Electrónica del Estado Sólido, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to R. Herrera-Rivera; moc.liamtoh@4lorahs

Received 2 August 2017; Accepted 29 October 2017; Published 29 November 2017

Academic Editor: Jean M. Greneche

Copyright © 2017 R. Herrera-Rivera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the present work the effect of different factors in the synthesis of ZnO powders by the homogeneous precipitation method is analyzed. A robust statistical technique, Taguchi’s method, was used to reduce the experiments number. The variables studied were precursor, solvent and precipitating agent type, Zn molar concentration, percentage of saturation, speed and time of agitation, and temperature of synthesis. In order to optimize the particle size, an experimental design of 18 trials was proposed, according to L18 Taguchi array. Structural and morphological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques (SEM and TEM). The estimated crystallite size in synthesized samples ranged from 32 to 57 nm. The morphologies obtained presented several forms, such as spheres, wires, flowers, bars, and tetrahedrons, with a particle size variation of 35 to 165 nm. In this work it is shown that using a statistical experimental design leads us to a fast and reliable optimization of the synthesis parameters for obtaining small size ZnO nanoparticles, thus optimizing time and human and materials resources.