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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017, Article ID 6092895, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6092895
Review Article

Nanofeatured Titanium Surfaces for Dental Implantology: Biological Effects, Biocompatibility, and Safety

1Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, Pavia, Italy
2Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, Pavia, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Ruggero Rodriguez y Baena; ti.vpinu@zeugirdor.oreggur

Received 15 December 2016; Revised 14 April 2017; Accepted 9 May 2017; Published 4 June 2017

Academic Editor: Martin Andersson

Copyright © 2017 Ruggero Rodriguez y Baena et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanotechnology enables the control and modification of the chemical and topographical characteristics of materials of size less than 100 nm, down to 10 nm. The goal of this review is to discuss the role of titanium substrates as nanoscale surface modification tools for improving various aspects of implantology, including osseointegration and antibacterial properties. Techniques that can impart nanoscale topographical features to endosseous implants are described. Since the advent of nanotechnology, cellular specific functions, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, have been better understood. By applying these technologies, it is possible to direct cellular responses and improve osseointegration. Conversely, modulating surface features by nanotechnology could have the effect of decreased bacterial colonization.