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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9461615, 6 pages
Research Article

Lignocellulosic Micro- and Nanomaterials as Copper Frames for the Evaluation of the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition

1School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
2C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Gloria S. Oporto

Received 22 February 2017; Accepted 15 June 2017; Published 18 July 2017

Academic Editor: Sohel Rana

Copyright © 2017 Charles W. Owens et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Copper was immobilized onto carboxymethyl cellulose, nanofibrillated cellulose, TEMPO-nanofibrillated cellulose, and lignin. The lignocellulosic frames were used with the aim of providing an effective support for catalyst copper and allowing its further reutilization. Each organic support was successful and effective in the coupling of copper with the exception of lignin. These complexes were used as heterogeneous catalysts to produce 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole from the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) between benzyl azide and phenylacetylene. Each reaction was carried out in water and acetonitrile. Those performed in water were completed in 15 minutes while those done in acetonitrile were allowed to react overnight, reaching completion in less than 20 hours. The yields for Cu-CMC resulted in over 90% for those reactions performed in acetonitrile. All catalysts were easy to recover except Cu-lignin which could not be filtered or extracted from the reaction effluent.