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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 5963982, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5963982
Research Article

Hybrid Monolith of Graphene/TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofiber as Mechanically Robust, Highly Functional, and Recyclable Adsorbent of Methylene Blue Dye

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Dengxin Li; nc.ude.uhd.liam@nixgnedil

Received 10 September 2017; Accepted 2 November 2017; Published 3 January 2018

Academic Editor: Sónia Simões

Copyright © 2018 Asif Hussain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Herein we demonstrate first report on fabrication, characterization, and adsorptive appraisal of graphene/cellulose nanofibers (GO/CNFs) monolith for methylene blue (MB) dye. Series of hybrid monolith (GO/CNFs) were assembled via urea assisted self-assembly method. Hybrid materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric curve analysis, specific surface area, surface charge density measurement, and compressional mechanical analysis. It was proposed that strong chemical interaction (mainly hydrogen bonding) was responsible for the formation of hybrid assembly. GO/CNFs monolith showed mechanically robust architecture with tunable pore structure and surface properties. GO/CNFs adsorbent could completely remove trace to moderate concentrations of MB dye and follow pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Adsorption isotherm behaviors were found in the following order: Langmuir isotherm > Freundlich isotherm > Temkin isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of 227.27 mg g−1 was achieved which is much higher than reported graphene based monoliths and magnetic adsorbent. Incorporation of nanocellulose follows exponential relationship with dye uptake capacities. High surface charge density and specific surface area were main dye adsorptive mechanism. Regeneration and recycling efficiency was achieved up to four consecutive cycles with cost-effective recollection and zero recontamination of treated water.