Lactoferrin Coating Improves the Antibacterial and Osteogenic Properties of Alkali-Treated Titanium with Nanonetwork Structures
Evaluation of osteogenic induction ability in vivo: (a) transverse micro-CT reconstructed images of proximal tibiae showing ROI status and micro-CT quantitative evaluation within the ROI (); (b) histological sections with Villanueva staining showing bone tissue morphology around the implant (black) and quantitative histomorphometric analysis within the region of measurement (BA and BIC) (); (c) merged fluorescent images of alloy implants and fluorescence labeling analysis of new bone formation at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation (scale bar = 100 μm). ;;. Micro-CT: computed tomography; TNS: titanium with nanonetwork structures; TNS-LF: titanium with nanonetwork structures coated with lactoferrin; ROI: region of interest; BV/TV: bone volume/total volume; Tb.Th: trabecular thickness; Tb.N: trabecular number; Tb.Sp: trabecular separation; BA: bone area ratio; BIC: bone-implant contact; LBA: labeled bone area.
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