The Burden of Malnutrition among Adults Residing in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS): A WHO STEPS SurveyRead the full article
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Ex Vivo Study of Laban's Role in Decreasing Hemolysis Crisis in G6PD-Deficient Patients
In spite of the vast nutritional and environmental benefits provided by fava bean (Vicia faba), the ingestion of vicine/convicine provokes an acute hemolytic anemia called favism in individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The elimination of these glycosides is a goal that could be accomplished using different processing methods including bacteriological treatment. Laban as a good source of lactic acid bacteria was tested in an ex vivo assay on human blood samples in order to determine its capacity in decreasing the hemolysis crisis induced by the ingestion of fava beans. Results indicate a significant decrease in human blood cell hemolysis after the treatment of fava beans by Laban. This decrease in hemolysis was also correlated with the G6PD deficiency categorization. The highest hemolysis level (mean: 23.11 ± 0.76%) was observed in samples with G6PD activity between 10 and 30%, while the lowest hemolysis level (mean: 5.75 ± 0.64%) was observed in samples with G6PD activity more than 60%. This decrease was correlated with a high antioxidant capacity of Laban (51.61 ± 1.13% expressed by the percentage inhibition of DPPH radical). The counts of isolates from MRS and M17 culture plates were 6.75 ± 0.095 and 7.91 ± 0.061 log cfu ml–1, respectively. In conclusion, the synergy between the antioxidant properties of Laban and the possible decrease of vicine and convicine concentrations by lactobacillus found in the fermented dairy products could explain the ability of Laban to reduce the hemolysis crisis ex vivo.
Miso Soup Consumption Enhances the Bioavailability of the Reduced Form of Supplemental Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound that is involved in energy production and is a lipid-soluble antioxidant. Although it has been proposed as an antiaging and a health-supporting supplement, its low bioavailability remains a significant issue. Concurrent food intake enhances the absorption of orally administered CoQ10, but it has not been fully established whether specific food substances affect intestinal CoQ10 absorption. Therefore, to determine whether the bioavailability of supplemental CoQ10 is affected by diet, P30, a granulated and reduced form of CoQ10, was dispersed in four different foods, clear soup, miso soup, milk soup, and raw egg sauce. Those foods which contained CoQ10 were consumed on different occasions at intervals of 6–14 weeks by the same participants. Thirteen participants were recruited in the single-dose and repeated clinical study. When miso soup containing P30 was provided, the serum CoQ10 concentration increased faster than when participants consumed other P30-containing soups or a P30-containing raw egg sauce. The area under the curve for serum CoQ10 during the first 5 h after consumption of the P30-containing miso soup was approximately 1.5 times larger than those after the consumption of other P30-containing meals. These data imply that the absorption of CoQ10 supplements can be enhanced by consuming them with food and in particular with specific food substances, such as miso soup.
Nutrition Knowledge is Correlated with a Better Dietary Intake in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrition education is one of the factors that may help to promote behavior change and therefore may improve the dietary habits of adolescent soccer players. However, information about the relationship between nutrition knowledge (NK) and the dietary behavior of these athletes is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating habits of adolescent soccer players and analyse the correlations among dietary intake and NK. Seventy-three Brazilian adolescent soccer players (aged 14–19 years), from four professional clubs, underwent anthropometric evaluation and completed 3-day food records. Misreporting of energy intake was evaluated and the dietary intake data were energy-adjusted and compared with recommendations for athletes and dietary reference intakes. The athletes also answered a questionnaire about barriers for healthy eating and a nutrition knowledge test divided into three sections: Basic Nutrition Knowledge (BNK), Sports Nutrition Knowledge (SNK), and Food Pyramid Nutrition Knowledge (FPNK). The participants showed a low NK (54.6%) and an inadequate intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, carbohydrates, and micronutrients. A positive correlation was found between the ingestion of phosphorus and FPNK as well as among calcium and both SNK and Total NK (). Sodium intake was negatively correlated with all categories of the NK test (). The adolescents reported that the principal barriers for adopting a healthy diet were the lack of willpower and a busy lifestyle. In this context, nutrition education is recommended and should also provide practicable healthy eating goals according to athletes´ lifestyle as well as target motivational barriers to increase adherence.
Visible Goiter among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Public Health Facilities of Debre Markos Town, East Gojjam, North West Ethiopia
Background. Goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland due to inadequate intake of iodine and goitrogenic food. It is the most important public health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia and specifically in East Gojjam. Though there are studies on goiter in Ethiopia, the magnitude is not well known and documented in Debre Markos town on pregnant women. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the magnitude of visible goiter and associated factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic in three public health facilities of Debre Markos town, North West Ethiopia. Methods. Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 401 pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics at three public health facilities using the systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire by an interview method. All pregnant women were examined for the presence of goiter using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to see the association between dependent and each independent variable. Result. The prevalence of visible goiter was found to be 10.5% (95% CI: 7.5–13.5). Visible goiter was more common in the age category between 15 and 19 years. Low household income (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.1–18.7), cabbage intake (AOR = 5.2, 95% CI: 1.2–22.3), and poor knowledge about the benefits of iodized salt (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.2) were factors associated with visible goiter. Conclusion and Recommendation. Visible goiter is a major public health problem in this study area. Low socioeconomic status, low knowledge of pregnant women about the merits of iodized salt, and frequent intake of goitrogenic foods such as cabbage increase the risk of developing visible goiter. Therefore, due emphasis on goiter prevention and control strategies, increasing knowledge of women on the benefit of iodized salt, including low-income households in safety net programs, and nutritional education on iodine-rich diets (such as tuna, dairy products, and egg) should be emphasized to alleviate the problem.
Risk Factors Associated with Under-Five Stunting, Wasting, and Underweight Based on Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey Datasets in Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Background. Stunting, wasting, and underweight among children are major problems in most regions of Ethiopia, including the Tigray region. The main objective of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight of children in the Tigray region. Methods. The information collected from 1077 children born 5 years before the survey was considered in the analysis. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify significant risk factors associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight. Results. Male children and rural born were having a higher burden of both severe and moderate stunting, wasting, and underweight than females and urban born. Among male children, 27.6%, 4.10%, and 14.2% of them were stunted, wasted, and underweight, respectively. Protected drinking water (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.50, 0.92)) was associated with stunting. Maternal age at birth less than 20 years (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: (0.45, 0.97)) and being male (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: (1.13, 3.68)) were associated with high risk of underweight. No antenatal care follow-up (OR = 2.20; 95% CI: (1.04, 4.64)) was associated with wasting, while the poor wealth index, diarrhea, low weight at birth (<2.5 kg), lower age of a child, and 3 or more under-five children in a household were significantly associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight. Conclusions. Being born in rural, being male, unprotected drinking water, smaller weight at birth, no antenatal follow-ups, diarrhea, and poor household wealth were factors associated with increased stunting, wasting, and underweight. Thus, interventions that focus on utilization of antenatal care services, improving household wealth, and improving access to protected drinking water were required by policymakers to decrease stunting, wasting, and underweight more rapidly.
General and Postbariatric Nutritional Knowledge among Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery
Purpose. The prevalence of obesity and the number of bariatric surgeries are increasing in Saudi Arabia. Studies evaluating nutritional knowledge, especially in Middle Eastern countries, are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the general and postbariatric nutritional knowledge related to dietary recommendations among patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 112 patients aged 18–65 years, of both genders, were recruited from the Surgical Clinics at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients’ knowledge pertaining to general nutrition and consumption after bariatric surgery was assessed in relation to dietary recommendations, using a preoperative questionnaire. Results. The mean general nutrition knowledge score was 42 of a maximum of 85 points (50%). Approximately 40% and 60% of patients were classified with a low and medium level of nutritional knowledge, respectively. Postbariatric nutritional knowledge among patients was very low (mean: 16/81 points). The level of education was correlated with patients’ body mass index () and the general nutritional knowledge total score (). Conclusion. General and postbariatric nutritional knowledge among Saudi bariatric patients is currently insufficient. A multicenter study involving a larger sample size with different sociodemographic characteristics is warranted to confirm these findings. The purpose of such a study would be to determine the nutritional knowledge of patients undergoing bariatric surgery and inform the implementation of educational strategies.