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Prevalence of Undernutrition and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in a Public General Hospital, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Design
Background. Undernutrition is a global health problem, particularly in pregnant women. Despite the limited studies performed in different parts of Ethiopia, the information about the prevalence of undernutrition of pregnant women in the current study area is not documented. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors in pregnant women. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Tigray region from August 01 to December 30, 2018. Study subjects were selected by systematic sampling technique from the respective hospitals. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were cleaned and entered using Epi-Data version 3.1 and then exported to statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 23.0 for analysis. Multivariate analyses were carried out, and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% CI and significance level ( value) <0.05 were considered. Results. Out of the total 844 selected pregnant women, 840 participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 99.5%; of this, respondent’s undernutrition prevalence was found to be 40.6% with 95% confidence interval (38.93% and 42.27%). Agriculture as occupation (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.5), women who wanted the pregnancy (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.448), no history malaria during pregnancy (AOR = 0.291, 95%: (0.152, 0.555)), coffee intake during pregnancy (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.69), and hemoglobin < 11 g/dl (AOR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.09, 7.8) were the factors that were significantly associated with undernutrition, value (<0.05). Conclusion. In this study, occupation, history of having malaria during pregnancy, wanted type pregnancy, coffee intake during pregnancy, and hemoglobin < 11 g/dl were factors significantly associated with undernutrition in pregnant mothers. So, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders should give special focus on these factors.
Factors Influencing Energy Drink Consumption in Participants and Viewers of Extreme Sports
Objective. To quantify energy drink consumption and influences affecting consumption in those who participate in or watch extreme sports. Methods. An online survey, informed by focus groups, was administered via Quadrics®. Advertisement was via social media, emailing extreme sport clubs, flyers at extreme sport locations, and word of mouth. Participation was limited to those >18 y who watched and/or participated in extreme sports. The study was conducted in New Zealand, with international online availability. Variables measured comprised age, sex, energy drink consumption, reasons for their use, extreme sport viewing, advertising, and sponsorship. Logistic regression models were utilised. Results. Amongst participants who completed the questionnaire (n = 247), the mean (SD) age was 26.2 (8.2) y, 40.5% were female, 57.9% consumed energy drinks, and 25.5% consumed >one per week. For every year older, odds of consuming energy drinks were 3.1% lower . A 31% increase in energy drink consumption for every single increase of viewing extreme sport per week was observed ; however, reported viewing of advertising was not associated with increased consumption. Conclusions. A large proportion of extreme sport enthusiasts regularly consume energy drinks, especially younger adults. Extreme sport viewing, where energy drink sponsorship is common, appears to increase their consumption, even if not considered advertising by the viewers themselves.
Overnutrition and Associated Factors: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study between Government and Private Primary School Students in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia
Introduction. Childhood overnutrition is a public health problem in low- and middle-income countries because its effect is likely to progress into adulthood that results in developing noncommunicable diseases at a younger age. There is no such previous comparative study that investigated this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of overnutrition among government and private primary school students in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institution-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March 5 to April 9, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 736 participants. Data were collected through face-to-face interview. Data was entered into EPI-info version 188.8.131.52 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were carried out to identify associated factors with overnutrition. Statistical significance was declared using value< 0.05. Results. The overall prevalence of overnutrition was 9.1%. The prevalence was higher among private schools (51 (14%)) than government (16 (4.3%)). Eating habit while watching television (AOR = 4.08, 95%CI: 1.10–15.16) and not having close friend (AOR = 3.72, 95%: CI: 1.21–2 11.48) were significantly associated with overnutrition in the government schools, while no father education (AOR = 2.59, 95%:CI:1.05–6.39), sweet food preference (AOR = 2.86, 95%:1.19–6.87), fat consumption more than three days per week (AOR = 3.79, 95%CI:1.61–8.91), eating habit while reading (AOR = 4.95, 95%CI:2.29–10.70), and vigorous-intensity sports (AOR = 2.23, 95%:1.02–4.86) were associated with overnutrition in private schools. Conclusion. Prevalence of overnutrition was higher among private than government schools. Hence, it requires attention through creating awareness about healthy diet, healthy lifestyle, and physical activity in collaboration with health and education sectors.
Dietary Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Misha Woreda, South Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Proper food and good nutrition are essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance and productivity, and health and well-being. Pregnancy is a critical phase in a woman's life. The aim of this study is to assess the dietary practice and associated factors among pregnant women in Misha woreda, south Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Misha woreda, South Ethiopia, on pregnant women. Data were collected by using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were entered in EpiData V-3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Binary logistic regression analysis was also employed to examine the association between dependent and independent variables. A P value of <0.05 was considered as the cutoff point to declare statistical significance. Result. Out of 618 pregnant women, almost all of them 618 interviewed with the response rate of 100%. The mean age of pregnant women was 27.31 years (±5.622). From total study participants, 54.1% of the respondents were followers of protestant religion and 80.2% of husband occupation were farmers and 78.7% pregnant women occupation were house wives. From the total participants, 43.6% had illness on the current pregnancy. Almost two third 66.2% of the pregnant women travel ≥ 1 hr to reach HF. Majority of the participants (62%) had moderate knowledge about dietary practice in pregnancy, and 29.5% practiced good dietary practice. Educational status (AOR = 4.07 [2.13, 9.18]), occupation (AOR = 5.32 [1.08, 13.95]), dietary knowledge (AOR = 7.2 [3.9, 17.09]), and food craving (AOR = 2.07 [1.41, 5.5]) were variables having a significant association with dietary practice. Conclusion. The prevalence of good dietary practice among pregnant women in Misha district was low when compared to other studies. According to the study result, educational status, occupation, dietary knowledge, and food craving were factors that affect dietary practice.
Noug Seed (Guizotia abyssinica) Cake Substituted with Dried Mulberry (Morus indica) and Vernonia amygdalina Mixed Leaves’ Meal on Growth Performances of Bonga Sheep at Teppi, Ethiopia
This study was conducted to evaluate noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake substituted with dried mulberry and Vernonia mixed leaves’ meal on feed intake, body weight change, and digestibility of Bonga sheep fed on Rhodes grass hay at Teppi Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. The experiment was conducted using 25 yearling lambs with an average initial body weight of 20.83 ± 1.66 kg. Five lambs were allotted per treatment in randomized complete block design. Treatments were isonitrogenous supplements of 100% concentrate (49.5% NSC, 49.5% ground maize grain, and 1% salt) offered at 400 g DM/head/day (T1), 25, 50, 75, and 100 of NSC CP substituted by dried mulberry and Vernonia mixed leaves’ meal in T2 = 429.8 g/day, T3 = 459.5 g/day, T4 = 489.3 g/day, and T5 = 519 g/day, respectively. The sheep were fed Rhodes grass hay adlibitum and had free access to water and salt block. Intake and growth trail lasted for 90 days followed by 10 days of digestibility trial. The CP, NDF, and ADF contents of Rhodes grass hay were 7.9, 74.8, and 46.8 percent. The CP content of NSC, ground maize grain, dried mulberry, and Vernonia leaves was 32.4, 8.3, 18.5, and 22.5%, respectively. Total DM intake (g/day) was significantly higher for lambs in T3 (771.4) than in T1 (722.8) and T5 (642.8) but similar to T2 (754.9) and T4 (759.7). The CP intake was highest (P < 0.001) for sheep in T2 and T3, but lowest in T5. The apparent DM digestibility for T1 (70.8%), T2 (68.8%), and T3 (69.1%) was significantly higher than for T5 (64.4%), while T4 (67.9%) and T5 were not significantly different. The attained average daily gain (g/day) of sheep in T1 (87.7), T2 (82.0), T3 (83.4), and T4 (75.2) was higher (P < 0.01) than in T5 (56.0). The result of this study indicated that dried mulberry and Vernonia mixed leaves’ meal can substitute NSC as a protein supplement up to 75% inclusion level resulting in optimum DM and nutrient intakes and body weight gain of yearling Bonga sheep. This study also highlights the positive potential of dried mulberry and Vernonia mixed leaves’ meal as a supplement to ruminants on a basal diet of fibrous feeds.
Effect of Health Education on Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity among Female Teachers Aged 40–60 Years in Asmara, Eritrea: A Quasiexperimental Study
Background. Middle age is a period in women’s life where many changes occur in their bodies due to the decline of gonadotropins. As a result, they face various vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Moreover, chronic illness such as diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases, and osteoporosis are prevalent at this time. Healthy nutrition and physical activity are effective factors to reduce the problems of menopause faced during middle age. Objective. This study aimed at assessing the effect of health education on healthy nutrition and physical activity among 40–60-year-old female teachers in elementary, junior, and secondary schools of Asmara. Method. A quasiexperimental design was used in this study. The data were collected from 99 middle-age female teachers who were selected by stratified random sampling. The intervention was conducted using lecture, brochure, and group discussion for a total of 3 hours. Data on physical activity and healthy nutrition were collecting using HPLP- II subscales physical activity and nutrition. Sociodemographic data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. The effect of educational training at preintervention and postintervention was evaluated by the paired t-test and factorial mixed ANOVA using SPSS (version 22). Results. The mean score of practicing healthy diet and physical activity at preintervention and postintervention was 27/44 (SD = 4.20) and 31/44 (SD = 5.36), respectively. A significant difference in the scores of practicing healthy diet and physical activity was observed after the educational intervention (MD = 4.06, 95% CI 2.95–5.17, ). The effectiveness of health education was seen across the categories of age, educational level, and occupational level where none of them showed significant interaction, displaying similar effect of educational intervention across all categories of the demographic variables. Conclusion. The structured educational intervention was beneficial for the studied women in changing their practice on healthy nutrition and physical activity.