Acute Effect of a Protein Supplement on Targeted Plasma Amino Acid Profile among Healthy Asian Indians: A Randomized Controlled TrialRead the full article
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Effect of Eel Biscuit Supplementation on Height of Children with Stunting Aged 36–60 Months: A Pilot Study
Background. Stunting is a major health problem in developing countries. Animal-based supplements can increase the height of children with stunting. This study was aimed at determining the effect of eel biscuit supplementation on increase in the height of children with stunting aged 36–60 months. Methods. A pilot study with pretest-post-test design. The study was conducted in two villages in the Priangan Region, West Java Province, Indonesia. The participants were divided into two groups: intervention group (10 supplemented eel biscuit pieces) and control group (biscuits from the government’s biscuit programme). A total of 56 children aged 36–60 months with the height-for-age z-score of <−2 SD were recruited voluntarily for sampling. Results. The initial height-for-age z-score of the intervention group was −3.45 SD and that of the control group was −3.11 SD. After 3 months of supplemented eel biscuit consumption, the height-for-age z-score of the intervention group changed to −2.52 SD and that of the control group changed to −2.51 SD. The average shift of the height-for-age z-score after 3 months of supplemented eel biscuit consumption was 0.93 SD in the intervention group and 0.6 SD in the control group. There were significant differences in delta and percent increase in the height-for-age z-score between both groups. Conclusions. Consumption of supplemented eel biscuits for 3 months increased the height-for-age z-score of children with stunting aged 36–60 months by 0.93 SD.
Insulin Resistance in Osteoarthritis: Similar Mechanisms to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Osteoarthritis (OA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are two of the most widespread chronic diseases. OA and T2D have common epidemiologic traits, are considered heterogenic multifactorial pathologies that develop through the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and have common risk factors. In addition, both of these diseases often manifest in a single patient. Despite differences in clinical manifestations, both diseases are characterized by disturbances in cellular metabolism and by an insulin-resistant state primarily associated with the production and utilization of energy. However, currently, the primary cause of OA development and progression is not clear. In addition, although OA is manifested as a joint disease, evidence has accumulated that it affects the whole body. As pathological insulin resistance is viewed as a driving force of T2D development, now, we present evidence that the molecular and cellular metabolic disturbances associated with OA are linked to an insulin-resistant state similar to T2D. Moreover, the alterations in cellular energy requirements associated with insulin resistance could affect many metabolic changes in the body that eventually result in pathology and could serve as a unified mechanism that also functions in many metabolic diseases. However, these issues have not been comprehensively described. Therefore, here, we discuss the basic molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological processes associated with the development of insulin resistance; the major inducers, regulators, and metabolic consequences of insulin resistance; and instruments for controlling insulin resistance as a new approach to therapy.
The Use of SenseWear Armband for Assessment of Daily Energy Expenditure and the Relation to Body Fat Distribution and Nutritional Intake in Lean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Objective. To evaluate nutritional intake, energy expenditure, and segmental body composition in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare them with age- and body mass index- (BMI-) matched control women. Methods. 32 nonobese patients with PCOS and 31 age- and BMI-matched healthy women were included in the study. Energy expenditure and physical activity level were assessed by metabolic Holter equipment (SenseWear Armband, SWA) which was never previously used in lean PCOS population. Food intake is recorded with 24 hours of food record. Segmental body composition analysis was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA). Results. Mean BMI was 22.64 ± 3.64 and 21.55 ± 2.77 kg/m2 () in PCOS and control groups, respectively. Mean age was 22.03 ± 4.21 and 21.71 ± 2.67 year (), respectively. No significant differences were found in total energy intake and percentage of carbohydrates, fats, and other micronutrients (). Energy percentage of proteins (%12.73 ± 1.98, ) was statistically lower in subjects versus the control group. The measurements of physical activity duration (PAD) (1.40 ± 0.87/2.18 ± 0.99 hours, ), active energy expenditure (372.35 ± 198.32/494.10 ± 186.50 kcal, ), and step counting (9370.03 ± 3587.49/11730.90 ± 3564.31 steps, ) measurement of the PCOS group were lower than the control group, respectively. Conclusions. New diagnosed women with PCOS had similar distribution and quantity of body fat parameters and nutritional status when compared to healthy women. Control subjects were found more active in energy expenditure.
Effects of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) Seed Flour in Moderately Malnourished Children: Randomized Clinical Trial
The monitoring and combined use of dietary supplements to restore adequate growth are paramount and highly recommended in child malnutrition, an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of cashew nut seed flour in children with moderate malnutrition, treated at primary healthcare services. This is a randomized clinical trial conducted from April to October 2017 in the city of Imperatriz, Brazil. The sample comprised 30 children born at term, aged between 2 and 5 years, and newly diagnosed with malnutrition (60 days or less), randomized into experimental and control groups. The intervention consisted of daily intake of cashew nut seed flour. There was intragroup statistically significant difference in the glucose levels of children who were assigned to the control group () and in the glycated hemoglobin in the experimental group (). Intergroup analysis of glycated hemoglobin levels showed statistically significant differences in favor of the experimental group (). HDL and LDL had, respectively, increased and decreased in the experimental group. The use of cashew nut seed flour in a 24-week period had positive effects on glycated hemoglobin, HDL, and LDL parameters in moderately malnourished children.
Reducing Undernutrition through Counseling on Diversified Food Intake among Adult People Living with HIV on HAART, Northern Ethiopia
Background. HIV/AIDS and malnutrition are interrelated and exacerbate one another in a vicious cycle. As HIV infection progresses it causes catabolic state and increases susceptibility to other infections, leading to progressive aggravation of undernutrition. However, data are lacking in Ethiopia on determinants of undernutrition among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to assess determinants of undernutrition among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Northern Ethiopia. Method. Facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted among 324 randomly selected people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART). A structured and pretested interviewer questionnaire was used to collect data, while digital Seca weight and Seca measuring rod were used to measure weight and height, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify independent factors of undernutrition, and value <0.05 was declared for statistical significance. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21™. Result. This study revealed that people of younger age and those on ART (AOR = 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.84)) had low risk of being undernourished. However, average individual monthly income (AOR = 2.61 (95% CI: 1.48, 4.61)), not receiving nutritional counseling during visits (AOR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.52–3.89)), and low diet diversity (AOR = 10.55 (95% CI: 4.17, 26.73)) had higher odds of undernutrition among people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Age of patients, average monthly income, nutritional counseling during visits, and diet diversity were the independent factors of undernutrition. Counseling on well-timed and sufficient consumption of nutritious foods, economic strengthening, and livelihood activities is important. Future longitudinal study is necessary to elucidate the problem of undernutrition among people living with HIV/AIDS.
Caesarean Section Delivery and Risk of Poor Childhood Growth
Background. Though emerging evidence indicates caesarean section (CS) brings about late initiation of breastfeeding, early cessation of breastfeeding, and a higher risk of developing obesity, little is documented on the association between CS birth and stunted growth. This study assessed caesarean section delivery and the risk of poor postnatal childhood growth. Methods. A retrospective cohort study design was used to collect the requisite data on a sample of 528 mothers having children between the ages of 6 to 24 months. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results. After controlling for potential confounding factors, linear growth as measured by height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) was significantly higher by 0.121 standard units in children born through normal vaginal delivery, compared to their counterparts born through caesarean section (beta coefficients (β) = 0.121, ). The mode of delivery also had a statistically significant impact on infant feeding practices. Whereas 70.4% of babies delivered via vagina initiated breastfeeding within one hour of delivery, only 52.7% of babies born through CS did the same. Vaginally delivered babies were 2.1 times more likely to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of delivery ((Crude odds ratio (COR) = 2.13, ). Compared to CS babies, vaginally delivered babies were 3.2 times more likely not to have been fed with prelacteal feeds such as water and sugar solutions. Vagina delivered babies were 1.8 times more likely to receive adequate neonatal feeding than their counterparts who were delivered through CS (COR = 1.76, ). Conclusions. This study has found an association between CS delivery and stunting, an adverse outcome that clinicians and patients should weigh when considering in particular elective CS that seeks to avoid the pain associated with a vaginal birth.