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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original research articles and review articles covering the broad and multidisciplinary field of human nutrition and metabolism.
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Changes in Eating Habits and Lifestyles in a Peruvian Population during Social Isolation for the COVID-19 Pandemic
Background. Peru has one of the highest infection and death rates in the world for the COVID-19 pandemic. The government implemented house confinement measures with probable consequences on lifestyle, particularly affecting eating habits, physical activity, sleep quality, and mental health. Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the lifestyles, physical activity, and sleep characteristics, as well as changes in eating habits in a Peruvian population during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. We analyzed Peruvian adults based on an online self-administered questionnaire divided into sociodemographic, anthropometrics, COVID-19 diagnosis reported, lifestyle habits, and frequency of consumption of foods. Results. During confinement for COVID-19, 1176 participants were studied. Of these, most reported weight gain (1 to 3 kg) and 35.7% were overweight. The lifestyles habits showed that 54.8% reported doing physical activity and 37.2% sleep less. The Peruvian sample presented a main meal pattern of breakfast (95.7%), lunch (97.5%), and dinner (89.1%). Likewise, eating habits before and during COVID-19 pandemic showed that vegetables (OR:1.56, CI95% 1.21–200), fruit (OR: 1.42, CI95% 1.10–1.81), legumes (OR:1.67, CI95% 1.23–2.28), and eggs (OR: 2.00, CI95% 1.52–2.65) presented significant consumption increase during social isolation, while bakery products (OR: 0.74, CI95% 0.56–0.97), meat, snack, refreshment, and fast food decreased in consumption. Other foods showed no significant differences. Conclusion. This study showed an important frequency of overweight and sleep changes. There was a slight increase in physical activity despite the social isolation measures and an increase in healthy eating habits; nevertheless, the majority reported gaining weight.
Effect of Antioxidants in the Treatment of COPD Patients: Scoping Review
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, treatable lung disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and multiorgan impact. This affects the nutritional status of patients and requires multidimensional interventions including nutritional interventions according to individual metabolic needs. Our scoping review determined the effects of antioxidants in the treatment of COPD patients and their role in the decrease in the probability of exacerbations, hospital readmissions, and changes in lung function. The sources MEDLINE, LILACS, and Google Scholar were consulted and 19 studies were selected. The most indicated antioxidants are N-Acetylcysteine, vitamins E and D, and Zinc. Other antioxidants from plants or fruits extracts are also being investigated. The beneficial effect of antioxidants in stable or exacerbated patients is not clear, but theoretical and biological arguments of benefit justify lines of research that specify the impact on reducing oxidative stress and negative effects in COPD.
Therapeutic Effects of Punica granatum (Pomegranate): An Updated Review of Clinical Trials
Punica granatum L. belongs to the Punicaceae family which is distributed around the world. Different parts of pomegranate like seed, peel, juice, and leaves are rich in potential bioactive compounds. These plants have found application in traditional medicine such as in treatment of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, among others. The present review aimed to summarize the current research on the traditional and scientific applications of P. granatum with regard to the phytochemical content and clinical applications that may be useful for future drug development. Information about P. granatum was obtained from local classic herbal literature and electronic databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Several phytochemical constituents including polyphenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanosides, alkaloids, lignans, and triterpenes have been reported from the plant. Randomized clinical trials have provided evidence as to the pharmacological activities of pomegranate in several diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, oral cavity disorders, endocrine disorders, and cancer. The present review has provided an insight into the traditional applications of the plants, and some of them have been validated by scientific evidence, particularly their applications as treatment of cardiovascular and endocrine diseases.
Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance among Health Personnel from Peru
We explored the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR) among health personnel from a public hospital in Peru in a cross-sectional study with data from the Plan for the Prevention and Surveillance of Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases of Huaycán Hospital. MetS was defined according to Latin American Diabetes Association (ALAD) criteria and IR with surrogate IR markers, triglyceride-to-HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C), and triglyceride-to-glucose index (TyG). The association between SUA and MetS and IR was determined using Poisson regression models in a sample of 292 participants with an average age of 46.2 ± 10.6 years. The total prevalence of MetS was 38%, and the individuals with MetS presented mainly alterations in anthropometric parameters (obesity and body fat). Finally, the adjusted regression models showed that women with SUA in the highest tertile increased the prevalence of MetS (PR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.07–2.74) compared to the lowest tertile of SUA in women, while SUA increased hypertriglyceridemia and IR (TG/HDL-C and TyG) in both sexes. We concluded that SUA is strongly associated with MetS in women, and SUA increases hypertriglyceridemia and IR in both sexes. On the contrary, more research is required regarding the female population.
Moderate and Severe Level of Food Insecurity Is Associated with High Calorie-Dense Food Consumption of Filipino Households
Food insecurity is often deeply rooted in poverty. Hence, accessibility and the quality of foods consumed may affect the dietary pattern. The study aims to assess the relationship between food insecurity and dietary consumption. This investigation analyzed the data from the 2015 Updating of Nutritional Nutrition Survey. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was used to determine household food security status and the prevalence of food insecurity. Food weighing, food inventory, and food recall were the methods used to collect food consumption data of sampled households. The study revealed poor nutrient quality and a greater likelihood of inadequacy of nutrients among moderate and severe food insecure households. Mild, moderate, and severe levels of food insecurity were found to affect 12%, 32%, and 22% of the population, respectively. The test showed that both moderate and severe food insecure families have significantly lower mean consumption of meat, milk, and fats and oils in contrast to food secure households. In comparison with food secure households, moderate and severe food insecure households consume higher amounts of cereals and cereal products, rice, and vegetables. Moderate and severe food insecure households have higher consumption of total carbohydrates but have significantly lower average intake of vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, and total fat related to food stable households. Moreover, the results of the multiple logistic regression revealed that food insecure households have a higher likelihood to be deficient in energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C intakes, but except for iron ( value <0.05). Indeed, household food insecurity was associated with the higher consumption of calorie-dense food among Filipino households. This explains a lower nutrient quality and a higher likelihood of inadequacy of nutrients among moderate and severe food insecure households.
Undernutrition and Associated Factors among Under-Five Orphan Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2020: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Undernutrition contributes to the death of around 3 million children and threatens the futures of hundreds of millions, undermining healthy development and the strength of their societies by preventing children from achieving their full potential. Orphans are at greater risk of undernutrition because they are more likely to be extremely poor and receive less medical and social care. However, there is little information about the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among under-five orphan children. Objective. This study aimed to assess undernutrition and associated factors among under-five orphan children in orphanages in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from February 28 to March 28, 2020. A simple random sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 275 orphan children. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were used to collect data. Data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analysis was done by WHO Anthro version 3.2.2 and SPSS version 23. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of undernutrition at a p value of less than 0.05 with an adjusted odds ratio of 95% confidence interval. Results. The prevalence of wasting, stunting, and underweight were 11.1%, 45.8%, and 25.5%, respectively. Presence of illness (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.41, 12.73), children who received less than three meals per day (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.58, 7.71), and children who were not vaccinated (AOR = 2.86; 95% CI: 2.07, 11.61) were significantly associated with stunting. Children who were not vaccinated (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.29, 9.71) and who had inadequate dietary diversity scores (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.16, 12.65) were significantly associated with wasting and underweight, respectively. Conclusion. The prevalence of undernutrition was very high compared to national data. Health status, meal frequency, and vaccination status were associated factors of stunting. Vaccination status and dietary diversity score were associated factors with wasting and underweight, respectively. Therefore, improving meal frequency, dietary diversity, and early treatment during childhood illness are important to reduce orphan undernutrition.