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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original research articles and review articles covering the broad and multidisciplinary field of human nutrition and metabolism.
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Fast-Food Dietary Pattern Is Linked to Higher Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Canadian Adults
Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Diet is a key factor in prevention and development of MetS. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary patterns and MetS among Canadians 12–79 years old using the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) combined Cycles 1 and 2 data from 2007–11. We hypothesized that MetS varies among different sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and that Canadians who have less healthy dietary patterns are more likely to have MetS. Methods. In the CHMS, MetS was determined using objective health measures. The principal component analysis method was used to determine the dietary patterns. Using logistic regression, the association between MetS and dietary patterns, controlling for potential covariates, was investigated for age groups of 12–19, 20–49, and 50–79 years. Survey data were weighted and bootstrapped to be representative at the national level. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 16.9% for ages 12–79 y (n = 4,272, males = 49.6%), representing 26,038,108 Canadians aged 12–79 years. MetS was significantly different across sociodemographic variables; Canadians with less education, income, and activity had higher MetS prevalence than their counterparts. In older adults (50–79 years of age), the “fast-food” dietary pattern was associated with 26% (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.54; ) higher likelihood of having MetS. Conclusions. Among older Canadians, MetS is associated with a “fast-food” dietary pattern after adjustment for socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. Findings suggest the importance of diet quality/composition in the development of MetS among older Canadians and the need for further longitudinal studies on MetS and diet across the lifespan.
Magnitude of Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent Students in Legehida District, Northeast Ethiopia
Background. Undernutrition including stunting particularly at an adolescent stage was not emphasized by various intervention strategies in the Ethiopian context. Assessing the magnitude and potential risk factors of undernutrition is thus helpful for policymakers to design appropriate intervention strategies. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing the magnitude of stunting and associated factors among adolescent students in Legehida district, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 424 adolescent students from February 15th to March 15th, 2018. A stratified sampling followed by a simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pretested, structured, and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required data. Height was measured by using a portable stadiometer and the height-for-age (HFA) z-score was calculated as an indicator of stunting. SPSS version 25 and WHO AnthroPlus software were applied to analyze the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with adolescent stunting. Statistical significance was determined at a value of <0.05 and association was described by using an odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval. Results. A total of 406 adolescent students (with a response rate of 95.7%) participated in the study. The magnitude of stunting among adolescent students in this study was 24.9% (95% CI: 24.6%–35.3%). Conclusions. Stunting among adolescent students was significantly associated with being male [AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.73–5.90], meal frequency (<3/day) [AOR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.61–8.24], infrequent handwashing practice [AOR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.30–9.40], absence of latrine facility (AOR = 5.51; 95% CI: 3.03–9.9), and consumption of unsafe water [AOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.35–6.19]. Hence, conducting routine nutrition screenings and assessments, promotion of proper food intake, and emphasis on nutrition education and counseling are needed to be strengthened.
Concordance of Mother-Child (6–23 Months) Dietary Diversity and Its Associated Factors in Kucha District, Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Meeting minimum standards of dietary quality in mothers and children is a challenge in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Emerging evidence suggests that maternal and child dietary diversity is associated, but little is known about the associated factors of concordance of mother-child dietary diversity in Ethiopia and none is documented in the study area. This study examines the concordance between mother-child (6–23 months) dyads dietary diversity and the associated factors in Kucha District, Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 791 mother-child (6–23 months) pairs from 11 selected kebeles on March 6 to April 13, 2017. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. The sampling frame was obtained from the family folder of health posts in each kebele. The mother-child pairs were selected by the simple random sampling method. The 7 food groups of the World Health Organization (WHO) for children and the 10 food groups of FANTA/FAO 2016 for mothers were used to analyze the dietary diversity. Cohen’s kappa statistics was calculated to see the strength of concordance. The multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to determine factors affecting mother-child dietary diversity concordance. A good concordance was noted between mother-child dietary diversity scores (Kappa = 0.43). Only 56 (7.1%) mothers were negative deviants, and 133 (16.8%) mothers were positive deviants in dietary diversity consumption. Rural residence (AOR = 3.49; 95% CI: 1.90–6.41), having no formal education (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.08–3.05), not owning milking cow (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.10–2.56), children with low dietary diversity (AOR = 8.23; 95% CI: 5.17–13.08), and mothers with low dietary diversity (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.29–0.74) were found to be factors associated with mother-child dietary diversity concordance. An increase in the percentage of children reaching the minimum dietary diversity was greater with a successive increase in maternal dietary diversity. Despite interesting similarities between mothers and children dietary consumption, more than three-quarters of concordants did not achieve the recommended dietary diversity score (were low concordants). Interventions targeting on rural women’s access to high school education, home-based milking cow rearing, and promoting nutrition-sensitive agriculture to meet the dietary requirements of mothers and children in a sustainable manner and public health efforts to improve child nutrition may be strengthened by promoting maternal dietary diversity due to its potential effect on the entire family.
Nutritional Assessment and Management in Paediatric Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrition in paediatrics has always been one of the most important factors for optimal growth. Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need special consideration for better long-term outcomes, including nutritional status, optimal height, and cognitive function. Nonetheless, there are many obstacles to overcome to attain optimal linear growth and nutritional status in children with CKD. This review highlights the need for tools to assess the growth parameters in CKD. In addition, recommendations for dietary intake play a major role in controlling electrolyte disturbances in patients with CKD. For example, it is still unclear whether it is better to restrict phosphate sources in inorganic, organic, or food additives. The review also summarises different factors such as fluid intake, route of feeding, and essential nutrients that require particular attention in paediatric patients with CKD. In summary, a multidisciplinary team is needed to devise individual nutritional plans to achieve the best outcome and improve the quality of life of patients.
Effect of Third-Generation Beta Blockers on Weight Loss in a Population of Overweight-Obese Subjects in a Controlled Dietary Regimen
Background. Overweight and obesity often develop in individuals with genetic susceptibility and concomitant risk factors; however, medications can represent precipitating factors in some cases: evidence suggests that some antihypertensive drugs can adversely affect energy homeostasis and metabolism. Aim. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term therapy with a beta blocker impairs weight loss during a period of appropriate personalized hypocaloric diet and standardized physical activity in overweight and obese hypertensive patients in monotherapy and without comorbidities, compared to other antihypertensive drugs and to a control group not taking antihypertensive therapy. Subjects and Methods. We enrolled overweight and obese patients taking antihypertensive drugs; subjects were divided into 3 groups: those taking traditional beta blockers (bB group), those taking third-generation beta blockers (bB-3 group), and those taking other antihypertensive drugs (non-bB group). We also enrolled subjects receiving neither antihypertensive therapy nor other chronic medication in the prior 12 months as controls. All subjects underwent personalized hypocaloric diets for a period of 24 months with monthly follow-up. Anthropometric parameters were measured at enrollment and then monthly after diet prescription. Glucose and lipid values were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 months during dietary regimen. Results. We enrolled a total of 120 overweight and obese patients aged 50.30 ± 1.13 years (mean ± standard deviation) with a mean BMI of 31.79 ± 0.65 kg/m2; 90 were taking antihypertensive drugs (no comorbidity and no polytherapy), while 30 subjects receiving neither antihypertensive therapy nor other chronic medication in the prior 12 months were considered as controls. After 6 months, the percent total weight loss (TWL%) was lower in the bB group (3.62 ± 1.96 versus 5.27 ± 1.76 in the bB-3 group, versus 5.15 ± 1.30 in the non-bB group, and versus 4.70 ± 0.87 in the control group), as well as their BMI. After 24 months, we kept finding the worst result in the bB group (TWL% = 9.22 ± 2.19 versus 12.79 ± 1.72 in the non-bB group and 12.28 ± 1.97 in the control group) with the best trend in the bB-3 group (TWL% = 16.19 ± 2.67).
Nutritional Status and Associated Factors among Primary Schoolchildren from Pastoral Communities, Mieso-Mulu District, Sitti Zone, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia: Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Child undernourishment is the disturbance of body function arising from a dietary imbalance between body demand and supply, which is the most serious public health problem in developing countries. Objective. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of nutritional status and associated factors among full-cycle primary schoolchildren in pastoral communities in the Mieso-Mulu district, Sitti Zone, Somali Regional State of Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was used. Study participants were selected using two-stage sampling procedures. Data were collected using structured, translated, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaires. The weight and height were measured using a calibrated digital scale and a Seca Rod stadiometer, respectively. Microscopic identification of intestinal parasites was done. Multicollinearity was checked for independent variables. Height for age z scores (HAZ) and body mass index for age z scores (BAZ) were used to determine the nutritional status of children. Logistic regression with both bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was applied to identify associated factors with the nutritional status of children. Adjusted odds ratios were reported and the level of statistical significance was declared at a value <0.05. Results. The magnitudes of thinness and stunting were 13.1% [95% CI: 10.6%, 15.7%] and 24.6% [95% CI: 21.3%, 27.9%], respectively. Being male, not using a bed net, and the presence of intestinal parasitic infection were among the factors associated with thinness. Family size of less than five, household food insecurity, and unavailability of the latrine were among the factors associated with stunting. Conclusion. This study revealed that stunting and thinness are major health problems among schoolchildren. Household food insecurity, intestinal parasitic infection, bed net utilization, and the availability of latrine were some of the major factors significantly associated with undernutrition. Local policymakers, health programmers, nutritionists, health practitioners, and nongovernmental organizations should enhance the nutritional status of schoolchildren by using information dissemination interventions, particularly in improving waste disposal, sanitation/hygiene, latrine facilities, and school-based deworming. Furthermore, awareness creation using nutrition promotion and encouraging communities to attempt to diversify locally available and low-cost nutritionally effective food items to improve food consumption and distribution within a household is recommended to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition among schoolchildren.