Dietary Iron Intake in Pregnant Women in Europe: A Review of 24 Studies from 14 Countries in the Period 1991–2014Read the full article
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Awareness of Salt Intake among Community-Dwelling Elderly at Coastal Area: The Role of Public Health Access Program
A geographical location such as coastal area is known as risk factor hypertension relating to high exposure of salty foods. Public health access had significant effect on reducing salt intake at the community level. This study assesses salt intake in older women resident at urban coastal in Indonesia participating in the public health program. This was a cross-sectional study involving older women (56.98 ± 5.7 years) resident at urban coastal in Kenjeran, Surabaya, Indonesia. Salt intake was calculated and estimated based on 24-h urinary sodium. The mean daily salt intake was 6.16 ± 3.48 g/d; only 11.8% of subjects consumed salt intake <3 g/day. However, majority of subjects (62.8%) consume salt <6 g/d. Awareness and participation were associated significantly with low salt intake. A significant association between participation, awareness, and salt intake may suggest that participating regularly in the public health program might cause our subjects controlled excessive salt intake by limiting their salt consumption. Since daily salt intake is still significant high and hypertension is still prevalence, comprehensive strategies to reduce salt should be considered in development of sodium-reduction initiatives in this region.
The Burden of Malnutrition among Adults Residing in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS): A WHO STEPS Survey
Background. Malnutrition is one of the main underlying risk factors for the deaths due to different diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with underweight and overweight among adults residing in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS), Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April to June 2017. The data collection procedures and 3,368 calculated sample size were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to Surveillance guideline. Using the surveillance data of Arba Minch HDSS, simple random sampling technique was implemented to identify individuals for the study. To assess the presence of association, the multinomial logistic regression model was used. Results. The mean (SD) body mass index of the participants was 21.5 4.90 kg/m2. From 3,346 participants, 23.3% of the study participants were affected by malnutrition (10.8% and 12.5% were overweight and underweight, respectively). The prevalence of underweight was increased significantly among individuals aged 45–54 years and 55–64 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.70 and 1.93, respectively) compared with those who were 25–34 years old. Belonging to households with higher wealth index quintile (2nd quintile AOR is 0.58 and 4th quintile AOR is 0.66) has decreased the chance of adult individual to be underweight compared with the poorest households. On the other hand, the prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among females (AOR 1.60), urban residents (AOR 1.72), those with formal education (primary AOR 1.89 and secondary and above AOR 1.94), and higher wealth index (5th quintile AOR 1.87). Conclusion. One in five adult individuals was malnourished in the study area. The double burden of malnutrition at the population level is becoming a challenge for this community, as both underweight and overweight are becoming prevalent. Sex, age, residency, educational status, current tobacco use, occupation, and wealth index were identified as important determinates of under- and overweight.
Ex Vivo Study of Laban's Role in Decreasing Hemolysis Crisis in G6PD-Deficient Patients
In spite of the vast nutritional and environmental benefits provided by fava bean (Vicia faba), the ingestion of vicine/convicine provokes an acute hemolytic anemia called favism in individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The elimination of these glycosides is a goal that could be accomplished using different processing methods including bacteriological treatment. Laban as a good source of lactic acid bacteria was tested in an ex vivo assay on human blood samples in order to determine its capacity in decreasing the hemolysis crisis induced by the ingestion of fava beans. Results indicate a significant decrease in human blood cell hemolysis after the treatment of fava beans by Laban. This decrease in hemolysis was also correlated with the G6PD deficiency categorization. The highest hemolysis level (mean: 23.11 ± 0.76%) was observed in samples with G6PD activity between 10 and 30%, while the lowest hemolysis level (mean: 5.75 ± 0.64%) was observed in samples with G6PD activity more than 60%. This decrease was correlated with a high antioxidant capacity of Laban (51.61 ± 1.13% expressed by the percentage inhibition of DPPH radical). The counts of isolates from MRS and M17 culture plates were 6.75 ± 0.095 and 7.91 ± 0.061 log cfu ml–1, respectively. In conclusion, the synergy between the antioxidant properties of Laban and the possible decrease of vicine and convicine concentrations by lactobacillus found in the fermented dairy products could explain the ability of Laban to reduce the hemolysis crisis ex vivo.
Miso Soup Consumption Enhances the Bioavailability of the Reduced Form of Supplemental Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound that is involved in energy production and is a lipid-soluble antioxidant. Although it has been proposed as an antiaging and a health-supporting supplement, its low bioavailability remains a significant issue. Concurrent food intake enhances the absorption of orally administered CoQ10, but it has not been fully established whether specific food substances affect intestinal CoQ10 absorption. Therefore, to determine whether the bioavailability of supplemental CoQ10 is affected by diet, P30, a granulated and reduced form of CoQ10, was dispersed in four different foods, clear soup, miso soup, milk soup, and raw egg sauce. Those foods which contained CoQ10 were consumed on different occasions at intervals of 6–14 weeks by the same participants. Thirteen participants were recruited in the single-dose and repeated clinical study. When miso soup containing P30 was provided, the serum CoQ10 concentration increased faster than when participants consumed other P30-containing soups or a P30-containing raw egg sauce. The area under the curve for serum CoQ10 during the first 5 h after consumption of the P30-containing miso soup was approximately 1.5 times larger than those after the consumption of other P30-containing meals. These data imply that the absorption of CoQ10 supplements can be enhanced by consuming them with food and in particular with specific food substances, such as miso soup.
Nutrition Knowledge is Correlated with a Better Dietary Intake in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrition education is one of the factors that may help to promote behavior change and therefore may improve the dietary habits of adolescent soccer players. However, information about the relationship between nutrition knowledge (NK) and the dietary behavior of these athletes is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating habits of adolescent soccer players and analyse the correlations among dietary intake and NK. Seventy-three Brazilian adolescent soccer players (aged 14–19 years), from four professional clubs, underwent anthropometric evaluation and completed 3-day food records. Misreporting of energy intake was evaluated and the dietary intake data were energy-adjusted and compared with recommendations for athletes and dietary reference intakes. The athletes also answered a questionnaire about barriers for healthy eating and a nutrition knowledge test divided into three sections: Basic Nutrition Knowledge (BNK), Sports Nutrition Knowledge (SNK), and Food Pyramid Nutrition Knowledge (FPNK). The participants showed a low NK (54.6%) and an inadequate intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, carbohydrates, and micronutrients. A positive correlation was found between the ingestion of phosphorus and FPNK as well as among calcium and both SNK and Total NK (). Sodium intake was negatively correlated with all categories of the NK test (). The adolescents reported that the principal barriers for adopting a healthy diet were the lack of willpower and a busy lifestyle. In this context, nutrition education is recommended and should also provide practicable healthy eating goals according to athletes´ lifestyle as well as target motivational barriers to increase adherence.
Visible Goiter among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Public Health Facilities of Debre Markos Town, East Gojjam, North West Ethiopia
Background. Goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland due to inadequate intake of iodine and goitrogenic food. It is the most important public health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia and specifically in East Gojjam. Though there are studies on goiter in Ethiopia, the magnitude is not well known and documented in Debre Markos town on pregnant women. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the magnitude of visible goiter and associated factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic in three public health facilities of Debre Markos town, North West Ethiopia. Methods. Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 401 pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics at three public health facilities using the systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire by an interview method. All pregnant women were examined for the presence of goiter using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to see the association between dependent and each independent variable. Result. The prevalence of visible goiter was found to be 10.5% (95% CI: 7.5–13.5). Visible goiter was more common in the age category between 15 and 19 years. Low household income (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.1–18.7), cabbage intake (AOR = 5.2, 95% CI: 1.2–22.3), and poor knowledge about the benefits of iodized salt (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.2) were factors associated with visible goiter. Conclusion and Recommendation. Visible goiter is a major public health problem in this study area. Low socioeconomic status, low knowledge of pregnant women about the merits of iodized salt, and frequent intake of goitrogenic foods such as cabbage increase the risk of developing visible goiter. Therefore, due emphasis on goiter prevention and control strategies, increasing knowledge of women on the benefit of iodized salt, including low-income households in safety net programs, and nutritional education on iodine-rich diets (such as tuna, dairy products, and egg) should be emphasized to alleviate the problem.