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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2011, Article ID 237932, 15 pages
Review Article

A Review of Weight Control Strategies and Their Effects on the Regulation of Hormonal Balance

Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, School of Education, Baylor University, One Bear Place no. 97304, Waco, TX 76798, USA

Received 2 March 2011; Accepted 20 May 2011

Academic Editor: Andrea Buchholz

Copyright © 2011 Neil A. Schwarz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The estimated prevalence of obesity in the USA is 72.5 million adults with costs attributed to obesity more than 147 billion dollars per year. Though caloric restriction has been used extensively in weight control studies, short-term success has been difficult to achieve, with long-term success of weight control being even more elusive. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to control the rates of obesity that are occurring globally. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of how exercise, sleep, psychological stress, and meal frequency and composition affect levels of ghrelin, cortisol, insulin GLP-1, and leptin and weight control. We will provide information regarding how hormones respond to various lifestyle factors which may affect appetite control, hunger, satiety, and weight control.