Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

Table 2

Energy and nutrient intake at baseline and changes in intakes from baseline to week 12 for each group.

VariableBaseline (n = 113)
mean (SD)
Change in hazelnut (n = 29)
mean (SE)
Change in chocolate (n = 26)
mean (SE)
Change in control (n = 25)
mean (SE)
Change in potato crisp (n = 23)
mean (SE)
Overall P value*

Energy (kJ)8669.81 (1.35)1.06 (1.06)0.98 (1.05)0.96 (1.05)1.07 (1.04)0.721
Total fat (g)80.12 (27.95)22.52 (5.61)4.85 (7.40)−2.87 (6.90)3.74 (3.60)0.077
% of TE32.56 (6.69)6.36 (1.00)1.27 (1.32)−0.10 (1.46)−0.35 (1.28)< 0.001
SAFA (g)31.68 (12.27)1.38 (2.39)4.29 (3.85)1.58 (2.85)1.72 (1.93)0.620
% of TE12.83 (3.27)−0.37 (0.65)1.63 (0.90)0.89 (0.66)0.01 (0.75)0.005
MUFA (g)24.72 (1.90)1.67 (1.07)1.01 (1.08)0.95 (1.08)1.09 (1.06)< 0.001
% of TE11.22 (3.14)5.86 (0.54)0.38 (0.61)−0.34 (0.60)−0.01 (0.60)< 0.001
PUFA (g)10.98 (1.71)1.23 (1.08)0.90 (1.09)0.89 (1.08)1.09 (1.07)0.024
% of TE4.68 (1.48)1.16 (1.06)0.90 (1.08)0.92 (1.06)1.03 (1.07)0.012
Protein (g)82.22 (1.43)1.04 (1.07)0.93 (1.06)1.01 (1.07)1.04 (1.06)0.482
% of TE16.49 (3.44)−0.41 (0.56)−0.99 (0.70)0.59 (0.80)−0.26 (0.86)0.537
CHO (g)252.16 (1.37)0.93 (1.06)0.97 (1.05)0.96 (1.06)1.08 (1.04)0.509
% of TE46.54 (1.17)0.89 (1.03)0.98 (1.03)1.00 (1.03)1.01 (1.02)0.002
Dietary fibre (g)24.69 (1.46)0.98 (1.08)0.90 (1.06)1.02 (1.07)0.95 (1.05)0.276
Cholesterol (mg)253.04 (127.85)45.38 (26.53)−4.88 (36.35)−23.62 (31.81)16.52 (45.73)0.794
Sodium (mg)2497.37 (1.46)1.00 (1.11)1.00 (1.07)1.12 (1.11)1.11 (1.08)0.672
Vitamin E (mg) 9.13 (1.51)1.60 (1.07)0.90 (1.06)0.94 (1.09)1.30 (1.07)< 0.001

TE: total energy; SAFA: saturated fatty acids; MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids; CHO: carbohydrate.
*Overall P-values adjust for baseline value, sex, baseline age, and baseline BMI.
Geometric mean, accompanied by ratio of geometric mean.