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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2012, Article ID 175245, 7 pages
Review Article

Hypoadiponectinemia: A Link between Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

1Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Università Degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche 2, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2Divisione di Medicina Interna, Fondazione Istituto San Raffaele Giglio, Contrada Pietra Pollastra, 90015 Cefalù, Palermo, Italy

Received 19 April 2011; Revised 27 July 2011; Accepted 11 August 2011

Academic Editor: Andréa Name Colado Simão

Copyright © 2012 Tiziana Di Chiara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a combination of cardiometabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. MetS is rapidly increasing in prevalence worldwide as a consequence of the “epidemic” obesity, with a considerable impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. At present, there is a growing interest on the role of visceral fat accumulation in the occurrence of MetS. In this review, the effects of adipocytokines and other proinflammatory factors produced by fat accumulation on the occurrence of the MetS have been also emphasized. Accordingly, the “hypoadiponectinemia” has been proposed as the most interesting new hypothesis to explain the pathophysiology of MetS.