Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2012, Article ID 175245, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/175245
Review Article

Hypoadiponectinemia: A Link between Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

1Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Università Degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche 2, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2Divisione di Medicina Interna, Fondazione Istituto San Raffaele Giglio, Contrada Pietra Pollastra, 90015 Cefalù, Palermo, Italy

Received 19 April 2011; Revised 27 July 2011; Accepted 11 August 2011

Academic Editor: Andréa Name Colado Simão

Copyright © 2012 Tiziana Di Chiara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Avogaro and G. Crepaldi, “Essential hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 1, p. 137, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. M. Reaven, “Banting lecture: role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1595–607, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. M. Kaplan, “The deadly quartet: upper-body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 149, no. 7, pp. 1514–1520, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “Definition and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications,” Report of a WHO document. WHO/NCD/NCS/99.2, pp. 31–33, 1999.
  5. B. Balkau and M. A. Charles, “Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR),” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 442–443, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, “Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2486–2497, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. G. M. M. Alberti, P. Zimmet, and J. Shaw, “Metabolic syndrome : a world-wide definition: a consensus statement of the International Diabetes Federation,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 469–480, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Matsuzawa, T. Funahashi, S. Kihara, and I. Shimomura, “Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. T. Nakamura, K. Tokunaga, I. Shimomura et al., “Contribution of visceral fat accumulation to the development of coronary artery disease in non-obese men,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 239–246, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. N. Bergman, S. P. Kim, I. R. Hsu et al., “Abdominal obesity: role in the pathophysiology of metabolic disease and cardiovascular risk,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. S3–S8, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. C. Weyer, T. Funahashi, S. Tanaka et al., “Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1930–1935, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. R. Scaglione, T. Di Chiara, T. Cariello, and G. Licata, “Visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome: two faces of the same medal?” Internal and Emergency Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111–119, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Iwashima, T. Katsuya, K. Ishikawa et al., “Hypoadiponectinemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1318–1323, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. H. Zhang, J. Cui, and C. Zhang, “Emerging role of adipokines as mediators in atherosclerosis,” World Journal of Cardiology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 370–376, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. Y. Matsuzawa, “The metabolic syndrome and adipocytokines,” FEBS Letters, vol. 580, no. 12, pp. 2917–2921, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. T. Kadowaki and T. Yamauchi, “Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 439–451, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. M. Takahashi, Y. Arita, K. Yamagata et al., “Genomic structure and mutations in adipose-specific gene, adiponectin,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 861–868, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Okamoto, E. J. Folco, M. Minami et al., “Adiponectin inhibits the production of CXC receptor 3 chemokine ligands in macrophages and reduces T-lymphocyte recruitment in atherogenesis,” Circulation Research, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 218–225, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. R. Shibata, N. Ouchi, M. Ito et al., “Adiponectin-mediated modulation of hypertrophic signals in the heart,” Nature Medicine, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1384–1389, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. R. Tarquini, C. Lazzeri, G. Laffi, and G. F. Gensini, “Adiponectin and the cardiovascular system: from risk to disease,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 165–176, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. E. Hu, P. Liang, and B. M. Spiegelman, “AdipoQ is a novel adipose-specific gene dysregulated in obesity,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 18, pp. 10697–10703, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Arita, S. Kihara, N. Ouchi et al., “Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. M. Halleux, M. Takahashi, M. L. Delporte et al., “Secretion of adiponectin and regulation of apM1 gene expression in human visceral adipose tissue,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 288, no. 5, pp. 1102–1107, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. N. Maeda, M. Takahashi, T. Funahashi et al., “PPARγ ligands increase expression and plasma concentrations of adiponectin, an adipose-derived protein,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2094–2099, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. J. Díez and P. Iglesias, “The role of the novel adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin in human disease,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 293–300, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Shargorodsky, M. Boaz, Y. Goldberg et al., “Adiponectin and vascular properties in obese patients: is it a novel biomarker of early atherosclerosis,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 553–558, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. T. Pischon, C. J. Girman, G. S. Hotamisligil, N. Rifai, F. B. Hu, and E. B. Rimm, “Plasma adiponectin levels and risk of myocardial infarction in men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 14, pp. 1730–1737, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. M. Kumada, S. Kihara, S. Sumitsuji et al., “Association of hypoadiponectinemia with coronary artery disease in men,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Zoccali, F. Mallamaci, G. Tripepi et al., “Adiponectin, metabolic risk factors, and cardiovascular events among patients with end-stage renal disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 134–141, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. Koenig, N. Khuseyinova, J. Baumert, C. Meisinger, and H. Löwel, “Serum concentrations of adiponectin and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease in apparently healthy middle-aged men. results from the 18-Year follow-up of a large cohort from Southern Germany,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1369–1372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. J. Frystyk, C. Berne, L. Berglund, K. Jensevik, A. Flyvbjerg, and B. Zethelius, “Serum adiponectin is a predictor of coronary heart disease: a population-based 10-year follow-up study in elderly men,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 571–576, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. N. Sattar, G. Wannamethee, N. Sarwar et al., “Adiponectin and coronary heart disease: a prospective study and meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 623–629, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. D. A. Lawlor, G. D. Smith, S. Ebrahim, C. Thompson, and N. Sattar, “Plasma adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, but do not predict future risk of coronary heart disease in women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 5677–5683, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. B. Vozarova, N. Stefan, R. S. Lindsay et al., “Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2964–2967, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. B. Duncan, M. I. Schmidt, J. S. Pankow et al., “Adiponectin and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 2473–2478, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. S. Yang, C. Y. Jeng, T. J. Wu et al., “Synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, increases plasma levels of adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 376–380, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Furuhashi, N. Ura, K. Higashiura et al., “Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system increases adiponectin concentrations in patients with essential hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 76–81, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. E. Ferrannini, A. Natali, B. Capaldo, M. Lehtovirta, S. Jacob, and H. Yki-Järvinen, “Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and blood pressure: role of age and obesity,” Hypertension, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1144–1149, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. M. Haffner, “Editorial: insulin and blood pressure: fact or fantasy?” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 541–542, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. J. Avery, S. K. Patel, I. M. Ibrahim, M. Walker, and B. D. Keavney, “Common variation in the adiponectin gene has an effect on systolic blood pressure,” Journal of Human Hypertension. In Press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  41. K. Ohashi, N. Ouchi, and Y. Matsuzawa, “Adiponectin and hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 263–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. R. S. Lindsay, T. Funahashi, J. Krakoff et al., “Genome-wide linkage analysis of serum adiponectin in the Pima Indian population,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2419–2425, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. A. Vita and J. F. Keaney Jr., “Endothelial function: a barometer for cardiovascular risk?” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 640–642, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Fasshauer, J. Klein, S. Neumann, M. Eszlinger, and R. Paschke, “Adiponectin gene expression is inhibited by β-adrenergic stimulation via protein kinase A in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,” FEBS Letters, vol. 507, no. 2, pp. 142–146, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. H. Jones, M. K. Standridge, J. W. Taylor, and N. Moustaïd, “Angiotensinogen gene expression in adipose tissue: analysis of obese models and hormonal and nutritional control,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 273, no. 1, pp. R236–R242, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Hiuge-Shimizu, N. Maeda, A. Hirata et al., “Dynamic changes of adiponectin and S100A8 levels by the selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rivoglitazone,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 792–799, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed