Figure 3: Inflammatory signaling cascade and mechanisms by which ganglioside protects the intestine from inflammation and injury. There are at least four possible mechanisms by which ganglioside protects intestine from injury: (1) gangliosides prevent proliferation, maturation and targeting of immune cells; (2) gangliosides bind enterotoxic LPS and prevent interaction with TLR4; (3) gangliosides inhibit NFκB activation; and (4) gangliosides prevent production of LTB4 and PGE2. Adapted from Schnabl et al. [29]. COX-2 = cyclooxygenase-2; cPLA2 = cytosolic phospholipase A2; LTB4 = leukotriene B4; LPS = lipopolysaccharide; 5 LOX = 5 lipoxygenase; PGE2 = prostaglandin E2; PL = phospholipid; ROS = reactive oxygen species; 1, 2, 3, 4 = steps inhibited by ganglioside; TLR4 = toll-like receptor-4.