Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2012 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Blood Pressure-Lowering Mechanisms of the DASH Dietary Pattern

Table 4

Measures of potential mechanisms by treatment and time.

Measurement Mean ± SEControlDASH 𝑃 for DASH versus control

Urinary sodium/potassium ratio
 Baseline 2 . 7 6 ± 1 . 1 3 3 . 2 0 ± 0 . 6 9
 Change at week 1 1 . 2 3 ± 2 . 2 8 3 . 5 4 ± 3 . 5 2 * 0.002
 Change at week 2 0 . 6 1 ± 1 . 2 0 3 . 0 6 ± 2 . 9 1 0.004
𝑃 for trend 0.112 0.018

Plasma renin activity, μg/L hr
 Baseline 0 . 7 4 ± 1 . 0 3 0 . 4 4 ± 0 . 2 8
 Change at week 1 0 . 2 1 ± 0 . 3 0 0 . 3 8 ± 0 . 6 3 0.022
 Change at week 2 0 . 1 1 ± 0 . 2 4 0 . 2 2 ± 0 . 4 6 0.071
𝑃 for trend 0.653 0.441

Plasma aldosterone, nmol/L
 Baseline 0 . 3 5 ± 0 . 2 4 0 . 3 2 ± 0 . 1 0
 Change at week 1 0 . 0 4 ± 0 . 1 9 0 . 0 4 ± 0 . 1 6 0.361
 Change at week 2 0 . 0 2 ± 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 4 ± 0 . 1 7 0.846
𝑃 for trend 0.232 0.727

Urinary norepinephrine/Cr, μmol/mol
 Baseline 1 1 . 3 8 ± 5 . 2 7 9 . 3 9 ± 3 . 7 6
 Change at week 1 0 . 2 8 ± 3 . 0 1 0 . 9 7 ± 4 . 0 2 0.440
 Change at week 2 2 . 8 7 ± 1 4 . 5 0 1 . 9 5 ± 4 . 6 4 0.851
𝑃 for trend 0.829 0.525

Urinary epinephrine/Cr, μmol/mol
 Baseline 1 . 4 4 ± 0 . 7 3 1 . 1 8 ± 0 . 4 7
 Change at week 1 0 . 0 7 ± 0 . 7 8 0 . 2 1 ± 0 . 6 0 0.668
 Change at week 2 0 . 1 4 ± 0 . 7 4 0 . 6 0 ± 1 . 7 5 0.231
𝑃 for trend 0.713 0.243

N O 2 before hyperemia, μmole
 Baseline 2 8 6 . 3 ± 1 6 5 . 0 2 7 9 . 6 ± 1 8 8 . 5
 Change at week 1 5 4 . 3 6 ± 9 1 . 0 4 9 1 . 6 ± 1 6 6 . 1 0.564
 Change at week 2 6 7 . 9 ± 1 4 1 . 9 6 5 . 5 ± 1 9 5 . 3 0.976
𝑃 for trend 0.696 0.163

N O 2 after hyperemia, μmole
 Baseline 3 1 7 . 4 ± 1 8 1 . 1 2 4 1 . 7 ± 1 6 6 . 6
 Change at week 1 1 . 9 0 ± 6 9 . 9 2 4 3 . 5 9 ± 5 3 . 6 3 0.141
 Change at week 2 5 . 9 2 ± 1 0 3 . 9 9 3 . 9 4 ± 7 1 . 7 8 0.053
𝑃 for trend 0.675 0.036

N O 2 change (absolute), μmole
 Baseline 3 1 . 0 4 ± 6 0 . 0 5 3 7 . 8 5 ± 6 4 . 8 9
 Change at week 1 5 6 . 2 6 ± 5 9 . 1 5 4 7 . 9 8 ± 1 4 4 . 7 0.141
 Change at week 2 6 2 . 0 2 ± 7 2 . 5 2 8 . 4 8 ± 1 6 4 . 7 0.053
𝑃 for trend0.0260.423

N O 2 change, %
 Baseline 1 2 . 1 6 ± 2 5 . 3 0 1 4 . 8 4 ± 1 5 . 2 5
 Change at week 1 1 9 . 6 3 ± 1 3 . 4 8 0 . 8 0 ± 2 3 . 4 1 0.053
 Change at week 2 1 4 . 1 1 ± 3 7 . 6 5 1 8 . 1 2 ± 3 8 . 8 9 0.093
𝑃 for trend0.0040.173

BAFMD peak % change,%
 Baseline 5 . 2 0 ± 3 . 2 8 6 . 0 7 ± 3 . 6 0
 Change at week 1 1 . 6 4 ± 1 . 3 6 0 . 3 2 ± 3 . 9 9 0.159
 Change at week 2 1 . 4 7 ± 3 . 5 6 0 . 4 1 ± 4 . 9 4 0.341
𝑃 for trend0.3100.741

Augmentation index, %
 Baseline 2 2 . 4 3 ± 1 1 . 2 1 1 9 . 0 ± 9 . 6 8
 Change at week 1 4 . 1 7 ± 6 . 6 8 1 . 0 ± 5 . 4 8 0.348
 Change at week 2 3 . 0 ± 5 . 5 1 2 . 6 3 ± 6 . 2 6 0.905
𝑃 for trend 0.717 0.270

PWV, m/s
 Baseline 9 . 8 7 ± 2 . 7 2 1 0 . 2 3 ± 1 . 6 5
 Change at week 1 0 . 2 4 ± 2 . 2 2 0 . 7 0 ± 1 . 9 9 0.681
 Change at week 2 0 . 4 7 ± 1 . 8 7 1 . 5 4 ± 2 . 3 9 ‡‡0.358
𝑃 for trend0.4370.019

* 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 6 , 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 5 , 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 1 , ‡ ‡ 𝑃 = 0 . 0 2 6 compared to baseline within treatment group using the MANOVA analysis.

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