Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2012, Article ID 492353, 7 pages
Research Article

Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

Food Composition Evaluation and Modelling Section, Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), 55 Blackall Street, Barton Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia

Received 13 January 2012; Revised 17 April 2012; Accepted 13 June 2012

Academic Editor: Vieno Piironen

Copyright © 2012 Jacinta Dugbaza and Judy Cunningham. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, “Proposal P295—Consideration of mandatory fortification with folic acid. First Review Report,” Attachment 7: Dietary Intake Assessment Report, 2007.
  2. AUSNUT, “Food Standards Australia New Zealand,” 2007,
  3. P. Lancaster and T. Hurst, “Trends in Neural Tube Defects in Australia,” The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal Statistics Unit, 2001.
  4. C. Bower and F. Stanley, “Case for mandatory fortification of food with folate in Australia, for the prevention of neural tube defects,” Birth Defects Research A, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 842–843, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Commonwealth of Australia, “Interim evaluation of the voluntary folate fortification policy,” Prepared by Bonnie Abraham and Karen Webb. Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit, 2001.
  6. USA Food and Drug Administration, Code of Federal Regulations 137.165—Enriched flour and 137.185—Enriched self-rising flour.
  7. Health Canada's Food and Drug Regulation, Division 13, Grain and Bakery Products B.13.001. [S]: Flour, White Flour, Enriched Flour or Enriched White Flour.
  8. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Mandatory Folic Acid and Iodine Fortification in Australia and New Zealand: Baseline Report for Monitoring, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011, Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: Supplement to the baseline report for monitoring, 2011.
  9. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, “Neural tube defects in Australia: prevalence before mandatory folic acid fortification”.
  10. J. W. DeVries, J. I. Rader, P. M. Keagy et al., “Microbiological assay-trienzyme procedure for total folates in cereals and cereal foods: collaborative study,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 5–15, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Chun, J. A. Martin, L. Chen, J. Lee, L. Ye, and R. R. Eitenmiller, “A differential assay of folic acid and total folate in foods containing enriched cereal-grain products to calculate μg dietary folate equivalents (μg DFE),” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 19, no. 2-3, pp. 182–187, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Food Standard Australia New Zealand, “AUSNUT 2007 Explanatory Notes,” 2008,
  13. W. McLennan and A. Podger, “National Nutrition Survey. Food eaten. Australia 1995. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999,” (Catalogue No. 4804.0.),1999.
  14. “Commonwealth of Australian, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra,” Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey—Main Findings. Prepared by the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Preventative Health National Research Flagship, and the University of South Australia, 2008.
  15. J. Devore and R. Peck, The exploration and analysis of data. Thomson, Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, 2005.
  16. J. Campbell, M. Hauser, and S. Hill, “Nutritional characteristics of organic, freshly stone-ground, sourdough & conventional breads,” Ecological Agriculture Projects Publication 35, 1991.
  17. W. A. Anderson, D. Slaughter, C. Laffey, and C. Lardner, “Reduction of folic acid during baking and implications for mandatory fortification of bread,” International Journal of Food Science & Technology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1104–1110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. F. Choumenkovitch, J. Selhub, P. W. F. Wilson, J. I. Rader, I. H. Rosenberg, and P. F. Jacques, “Folic acid intake from fortification in United States exceeds predictions,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, no. 9, pp. 2792–2798, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Macdiarmid and J. Blundell, “Assessing dietary intake: who, what and why of under-reporting,” Nutrition Research Reviews, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 231–253, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. National Health and Medical Research Council and New Zealand Ministry of Health, “Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand,” Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2006.