Table 1: Long-term effects of prenatal stress exposure in young adults: summary of our studies.

OutcomeFindingPotential implicationsReference

Body composition and metabolic function↑ BMI; ↑ % body fat
↑ Insulin 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test
↑ Leptin
Fasting HDL; ↑ fasting VLDL
Risk for cardiometabolic disorders/type 2 diabetesEntringer et al. 2008 Am J Ob Gyn [90]

Endocrine system↑ ACTH, cortisol in response to psychosocial stress test
Cortisol levels in response to ACTH1-24 stimulation test
Susceptibility for psychosomatic disordersEntringer et al. 2009 Horm Behav [91]

Immune systemTH2 shift in TH1/TH2 balance after PHA stimulation
↑ IL-6, IL-10 after PHA stimulation
Risk for allergies, atopic disease, and asthmaEntringer et al. 2008 Dev Psychobiol [92]

Cognitive functionWorking memory performance after hydrocortisone administrationImpaired prefrontal cortex-related executive functionEntringer et al. 2009 Behav Neurosci [93]

Cellular aging Leukocyte telomere lengthRisk for age-related degenerative disordersEntringer et al. 2011 PNAS [94]

BMI: body mass index; HDL: low-density lipoprotein; VLDL: very low-density lipoprotein; ACTH: adrenocorticotrophic hormone; PHA: phytohemagglutinin; TH: T-helper cell; IL: interleukin.