Table 1: Characteristics of included studies.

ReferenceDesignFirst authorYearCountry 𝑛 (M/F)Age rangeMean ageModalityDurationOutcomesDowns and Black

[37]RCTYaroshenko1998Greece30 (30/0)22–2624.8BR7 daysTG24
[33]RCTZorbas1999Bulgaria30 (30/0)22–2624.3BR7 daysFG24
[22]RCODuran-Valdez2008USA10 (2/8)24–7246.2BR2 daysFI, FG, IS21
[11]RCOStephens2010USA12 (6/6)19–3226.1SIT1 dayFI, FG, IS24
[39]RCODunstan2012Australia19 (11/8)45–6553.8SIT5 hoursIS, GT27
[42]RCONygaard2009Norway13 (0/13)>50SIT2 hoursGT23
[21]NTAlibegovic2010Denmark38 (38/0)25.0BR7 daysFI23
[31]NTAlibegovic2009Denmark33 (33/0)25.6BR7 daysFI23
[23, 47]NTBlanc2000France16 (8/8)30.2HDBR6 daysFI, FG, IS, GT23
[35]NTDolkas1977USA7 (7/0)19–2220.0BR4 daysFG21
[25]NT Barbe1999France8 (8/0)23–3127.1HDBR5 daysFI, FG21
[10]NTHamburg2007USA20 (14/6)30.7BR5 daysFI, FG, IS, TG23
[20]NTKatkov1979Russia5 (5/0)34.0BR5 daysFG17
[41]NTKiilerich2011Denmark6 (6/0)22–3628.7BR7 daysIS, GT
[36]NTKsinantova2002Slovakia15 (15/0)34.0HDBR4 daysFG20
[29]NTLipman1972USA7 (7/0)18–20BR3 daysFI, IS, GT18
[32]NTKanikowska2010Japan8 (8/0)27.0HDBR5 daysFI, FG, IS
[27, 40]NTMikines1989Denmark6 (6/0)25.0BR7 daysFI, FG, IS, GT20
[30]NTMoro2007France8 (8/0)22–2723.0HDBR, SIT4 hoursFI, FG20
[34]NTNavasiolava2010Russia8 (8/0)23.0BR7 daysFG, TG, HDL, LDL22
[26]NTNygren1997Sweden6 (6/0)24.1BR1 dayFI, FG, IS22
[19]NTRichter1989Denmark5 (5/0)22–24CAST7 daysIS20
[24, 48, 49]NTSmorawinski1996Poland29 (29/0)20.10BR3 daysIS, GT19
[28]NTStuart1988USA6 (6/0)21–2823.0BR7 daysFI, FG, IS, GT22
[38]NTYanagibori1997Japan23 (13/10)19–25BR3 daysIS, GT, TG, HDL, LDL22

RCT: randomized controlled trial; RCO: randomized crossover; NT: nonrandomized trial; M: male; F: female; HDBR: head-down bed rest; 22BR: horizontal or head-up bed rest; SIT: sitting; CAST: casting; FG: fasting glucose; FI: fasting insulin; TG: triglycerides; HDL: HDL-cholesterol; LDL: LDL-cholesterol; IS: insulin sensitivity; GT: glucose tolerance.
When an intervention was described in more than one paper, the author name and year are taken from the earliest publication.