Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2012, Article ID 913965, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/913965
Research Article

Effects on Metabolic Health after a 1-Year-Lifestyle Intervention in Overweight and Obese Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
2Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden

Received 29 April 2011; Revised 13 July 2011; Accepted 13 July 2011

Academic Editor: Philip C. Calder

Copyright © 2012 Maria Waling et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Saland, “Update on the metabolic syndrome in children,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 183–191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. M. Tailor, P. H. M. Peeters, T. Norat, P. Vineis, and D. Romaguera, “An update on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 202–213, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. U. Ekelund, S. Anderssen, L. B. Andersen et al., “Prevalence and correlates of the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of European youth,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 90–96, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Reinehr, G. De Sousa, A. M. Toschke, and W. Andler, “Comparison of metabolic syndrome prevalence using eight different definitions: a critical approach,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1067–1072, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. K. Golley, A. M. Magarey, K. S. Steinbeck, L. A. Baur, and L. A. Daniels, “Comparison of metabolic syndrome prevalence using six different definitions in overweight prepubertal children enrolled in a weight management study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 853–860, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Zimmet, G. Alberti, F. Kaufman et al., “The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9579, pp. 2059–2061, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Weiss, J. Dziura, T. S. Burgert et al., “Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 23, pp. 2362–2374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. W. Franks, R. L. Hanson, W. C. Knowler, M. L. Sievers, P. H. Bennett, and H. C. Looker, “Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 6, pp. 485–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Morrison, L. A. Friedman, P. Wang, and C. J. Glueck, “Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood Predicts Adult Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 25 to 30 Years Later,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. R. Daniels and F. R. Greer, “Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 198–208, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. C. Whitaker, J. A. Wright, M. S. Pepe, K. D. Seidel, and W. H. Dietz, “Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 13, pp. 869–873, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Steinberger, S. R. Daniels, R. H. Eckel, L. Hayman, R. H. Lustig, and B. McCrindle, “Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. A scientific statement from the american heart association atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity in the young committee of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 628–647, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy, and P. Z. Zimmet, “The metabolic syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9468, pp. 1415–1428, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. O. Luttikhuis, L. Baur, H. Jansen et al., “Interventions for treating obesity in children,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD001872, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Kalavainen, M. Korppi, and O. Nuutinen, “Long-term efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counselling,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 530–533, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. A. Kalarchian, M. D. Levine, S. A. Arslanian et al., “Family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity: randomized, controlled trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 1060–1068, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. A. Williamson, H. M. Walden, M. A. White et al., “Two-year internet-based randomized controlled trial for weight loss in African-American girls,” Obesity, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1231–1243, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. J. Cole, M. C. Bellizzi, K. M. Flegal, and W. H. Dietz, “Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey,” British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7244, pp. 1240–1243, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. N. Robinson, “Behavioural treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity,” Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 23, supplement 2, pp. S52–S57, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. J. Stunkard and H. C. Berthold, “What is behavior therapy? A very short description of behavioral weight control,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 821–823, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Sharry, Solution-Focused Group Work, SAGE, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 2007.
  22. M. Waling, T. Lind, O. Hernell, and C. Larsson, “A one-year intervention has modest effects on energy and macronutrient intakes of overweight and obese Swedish children,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 10, pp. 1793–1798, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. S. G. Bäcklund, G. Sundelin, and C. Larsson, “Effects of a 2-year lifestyle intervention on physical activity in overweight and obese children,” Advances in Physiotherapy, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 97–109, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004: Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4th edition, 2004.
  25. R. J. Kuczmarski, C. L. Ogden, L. M. Grummer-Strawn et al., “CDC growth charts: United States,” Advance Data, no. 314, pp. 1–27, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Q. He, K. Albertsson-Wikland, and J. Karlberg, “Population-based body mass index reference values from Goteborg, Sweden: birth to 18 years of age,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 582–592, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Talvia, L. Räsänen, H. Lagström et al., “Longitudinal trends in consumption of vegetables and fruit in Finnish children in an atherosclerosis prevention study (STRIP),” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 172–180, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. A. Marshall and J. M. Tanner, “Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 44, no. 235, pp. 291–303, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. A. Marshall and J. M. Tanner, “Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 45, no. 239, pp. 13–23, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. C. Wells, “A critique of the expression of paediatric body composition data,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. M. Wallace, J. C. Levy, and D. R. Matthews, “Use and abuse of HOMA modeling,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1487–1495, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Larsson, O. Hernell, and T. Lind, “Moderately elevated body mass index is associated with metabolic variables and cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish children,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 102–108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Savoye, P. Nowicka, M. Shaw et al., “Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 402–410, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. B. G. Meriaux, A. L. Hellström, and S. Mårild, “Identification and follow-up of obesity in tenyear-old school children,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 102–108, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. L. Ford, L. P. Hunt, A. Cooper, and J. P. H. Shield, “What reduction in BMI SDS is required in obese adolescents to improve body composition and cardiometabolic health?” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 256–261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Reinehr, G. de Sousa, A. M. Toschke, and W. Andler, “Long-term follow-up of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children after an obesity intervention,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 490–496, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Hollis and F. Campbell, “What is meant by intention to treat analysis? Survey of published randomised controlled trials,” British Medical Journal, vol. 319, no. 7211, pp. 670–674, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. M. Lachin, “Statistical considerations in the intent-to-treat principle,” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 167–189, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus