Creatine-Kinase- and Exercise-Related Muscle Damage Implications for Muscle Performance and Recovery
(a) Changes in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity during 90-minute cycling exercise on three consecutive days (Ex1, Ex2, and Ex3), reprinted from Totsuka et al. with permission from American Physiological Society . (b) Creatine kinase (CK) response to eccentric exercise between immobilisation and control group. PRE refers to the baseline period before exercise. Days 1–4 represent the 4-day immobilization and days 5–9 are the recovery period. Reprinted from Sayers and Clarkson . (c) Creatine kinase (CK) activity in women and in men before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15 days after step exercise. +++ Significant difference from preexercise level (). $$$ Significant difference between men and women (), reprinted from Fredsted et al. .