Table 1: Some conditions causing or contributing to rhabdomyolysis adapted from Huerta-Alardín et al. with permission from BioMed [10].

Causes of Rhabdomyolysis
Physical causesExamples

Trauma/compressionCrush injury, motor vehicle trauma, bed-confinement, physical torture and abuse, and prolonged surgery
Vessel occlusionEmbolism, thrombosis, limb tourniquet, or clamp
ShockDrug overdose
Excessive muscle activityEpileptic fit, overexertion (marathon running), tetanus
Electric currentElectrocution, cardioversion, and lighting strike
HyperthermiaProlonged exercise in hot climate, infections, and cancer

Nonphysical causesExamples

Metabolic dysfunction/disturbanceCarnitine deficiency, various enzyme deficiencies, and mitochondrial and electron transport disturbance
ToxinsHeavy metals, venoms
Drugs and chemicalsAntipsychotics, antidepressants, hypnotics, narcotics alcohol, halothane, laxatives, salicylates, and strychnine
InfectionsViruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites
Electrolyte imbalanceHyperosmosis, hyper-/hyponatremia, hypocalcaemia, and hyper/hypokalemia
Endocrine disordersKetoacidosis, hyper-/hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus