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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 478324, 7 pages
Research Article

Reliability of a Fully Automated Interpretation of γ-H2AX Foci in Lymphocytes of Moderately Trained Subjects under Resting Conditions

1Sports Medicine and Sports Orthopaedics, University Outpatient Clinic, University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
2ZIEL-Research Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Munich Technical University, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany
3Institute of Health Science, Schwäbisch Gmünd University of Education, 73529 Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany

Received 9 May 2014; Accepted 16 July 2014; Published 24 July 2014

Academic Editor: Stan Kubow

Copyright © 2014 Juliane Heydenreich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Analysis of -H2AX foci is a promising approach to evaluate exercise-induced DNA damage. However, baseline levels and day-to-day variability of -H2AX foci have not been investigated in healthy subjects at rest. Methods. Blood was taken from eight moderately trained healthy males (29 ± 3 yrs, 1.84 ± 0.03 m, and 85 ± 6 kg) at two separate days (M1/M2) after 24-hour exercise cessation. Number of -H2AX foci per 100 lymphocytes (N), number of foci per affected lymphocyte (NAL), percentage of affected lymphocytes (PAL), and diameter (D) of -H2AX foci were analyzed (mean ± SD). Differences between M1 and M2 were analyzed using paired -tests ( = 0.05). Day-to-day variability was evaluated by calculating the coefficients of variation (CV%), bias, and limits of agreement (LoA). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between M1 (N: 7.6 ± 4.4, NAL: 1.2 ± 0.2, PAL: 5.9 ± 2.6%, and D: 0.63 ± 0.07) and M2 (N: 8.4 ± 4.6, NAL: 1.3 ± 0.1, PAL: 6.9 ± 4.2%, and D: 0.66 ± 0.06). CV was calculated to be 98.5% (N), 88.9% (PAL), 11.3% (NAL), and 8.0% (D). Bias (LoA) was 0.75 (−15.2/13.7), −0.02 (−0.36/0.33), −1.0 (−11.9/9.9), and −0.04 (−0.16/0.09), respectively. Conclusions. Background level in healthy subjects is approximately 0.07 to 0.09 -H2AX foci/cell. NAL and D are reliable measures.