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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2015, Article ID 468759, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/468759
Research Article

Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2National Health Examination Survey Office, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
3Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
5College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
6Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
7Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
8Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50002, Thailand

Received 4 November 2014; Revised 24 December 2014; Accepted 11 January 2015

Academic Editor: Michael B. Zemel

Copyright © 2015 W. Aekplakorn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.