Table 10: (a) In vivo example nutrient inducers of the Nrf2 pathway. (b) In vivo example nutrient inhibitors of the Nrf2 pathway.
(a)

EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compounds
Food sources in italics
Type of studyDosages used and references

Fish oilClinical3 × 1 g/d fish oil containing 1098 mg EPA and 549 mg DHA [181]
Lycopene 
Tomatoes, rose hips, guava, watermelon, and papaya  [111]
Clinical 2 × 15 mg/d lycopene [181]
Curcumin 
Turmeric, curry powder  [34]
In vivo 200 mg/kg/d curcumin [155] 
75 mg/kg/d curcumin [156] 
50 mg/kg/d curcumin [157] 
200 mg/kg/d curcumin [158]
Cruciferous vegetablesIn vivo 0.5 mg/kg/d sulforaphane [159] 
Diet of 15% crushed broccoli seed [160]
GarlicIn vivo 50 and 100 mg/kg/d diallyl disulfide [161] 
250 mg/kg/d raw garlic [162] 
25 mg/kg S-allyl cysteine [163]
Catechins 
Tea (especially green tea), cocoa, legumes, and grapes  [182]
In vivo 5, 15, and 45 mg/kg epicatechin [164] 
15 mg/kg epicatechin [165] 
20 mg/kg Theaphenon E (95% EGCG)
[166] 
5, 15, and 30 mg/kg epicatechin [167]
Resveratrol 
Grapes, wine, peanuts, soy, and itadori tea  [32]
In vivo 10 mg/kg/d [168] 
20 mg/kg/d [169]
Nrf2GingerIn vivo 100 mg/kg/d 6-shogaol [170] 
10 and 100 mg/kg dried ginger extract [171]
Purple sweet potatoIn vivo 100 and 200 mg/kg anthocyanin extract from purple sweet potato [118]
Isoflavones 
Soy, kudzu root, and red clover  [183]
In vivo 80 mg/kg/d soy isoflavones [172] 
60 and 120 mg/kg puerarin from kudzu root [173]
CoffeeIn vivo 2.0 mL/d coffee to an average animal weight of 200 g ± 10 g [174]
RosemaryIn vivo 50 and 100 mg/kg carnosic acid [175] 
5 mg/animal carnosol extract [176]
BlueberryIn vivo 200 mg/kg blueberry [166] 
0.6 and 10 g/day [177]
PomegranateIn vivo 1 and 10 g/kg pomegranate extract [178]: note high doses used
Naringenin 
Citrus  [179]
In vivo 50 mg/kg/d naringenin [179]
Ellagic acid 
Berries, pomegranate, grapes, walnuts, and blackcurrants  [42]
In vivo Diet of 0.4% ellagic acid [166]
Asthaxanthin 
Algae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, and crayfish  [38]
In vivo 15 mg/kg astaxanthin [166]
-tocopherol 
Nuts, seeds, whole grains, vegetable oils, and legumes  [111]
In vivo 20.8 mg/kg -tocopherol [180]

(b)

EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compoundsType of studyDosages used and references

Nrf2LuteolinIn vivo 40 mg/kg luteolin three times per week 
[184]
QuercetinIn vivo 50 mg/kg/d quercetin [185]