Table 3: (a) Human and in vivo example nutrient inducers of selected CYP3 enzymes. (b) Human and in vivo example nutrient inhibitors of selected CYP3 enzymes.

EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compounds
Food sources in italics
Type of studyDosages used and references

CYP3ARooibos teaIn vivo Rooibos tea, 4 g/L simmered for 5 minutes, as sole beverage [69]

CYP3A1Garlic In vivo 30 to 200 mg/kg garlic oil [36] 
80 and 200 mg/kg garlic oil 3 times weekly [70]
Fish oilIn vivo 20.5 g/kg fish oil [36]: note high dose used

CYP3A2GarlicIn vivo 200 mg/kg diallyl sulfide [8]
Cruciferous vegetablesIn vivo 50 mg/kg/d indole-3-carbinol [75]

Turmeric, curry powder [34]
In vivo 50 and 100 mg/kg curcumin [11]


EnzymeFood, beverage, or bioactive compounds 
Food sources in italics
Type of studyDosages used and references

CYP3AGreen teaIn vivo 45 mL/d/rat (avg. 150 g animal weight) green tea [33] 
400 mg/kg green tea extract [71] 
100 mg/kg/d green tea extract [56]
Black teaIn vivo 54 mL/d/rat (avg. 150 g animal weight) black tea [33]
Apple, apricot, blueberries, yellow onion, kale, alfalfa sprouts, green beans, broccoli, black tea, and chili powder [47, 48]
In vivo 10 and 20 mg/kg [72]

CYP3A2Cruciferous vegetablesIn vivo 12 mg/kg/d sulforaphane [57]

GrapefruitClinical200 mL grapefruit juice 3 times daily [74]
Grapes, wine, peanuts, soy, and itadori tea [32]
Clinical1 g/d resveratrol [28]: note high dose used
CYP3A4Garden cress Clinical7.5 g twice daily dose of garden cress seed powder [55]
SoybeanIn vivo 100 mg/kg soybean extract [7]
KaleIn vivo 2 g/kg/d kale, as freeze-dried kale drink [51]
Onions, berries, grapes, and red wine [58]
In vivo 0.4, 2, and 8 mg/kg myricetin [58]