Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2015 / Article / Tab 8

Review Article

Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application

Table 8

Amino acids used in phase II conjugation and selected food sources.

Glycine Turkey, pork, chicken, soybean, seaweed, eggs, amaranth, beef, mollusks, peanuts, pumpkin seeds, almonds, duck, goose, mung beans, sunflower seeds, lentils, lamb, bison, lobster, and fish [111]

Taurine Many cooked meats and fish supply taurine. Taurine is also synthesized in the body from cystine (requiring niacin and vitamin B6) and homocysteine (requiring additionally betaine and serine) [144]

Glutamine Plant and animal proteins such as beef, pork, chicken, dairy products, spinach, parsley, and cabbage [145]

Ornithine Ornithine is synthesized endogenously via the urea cycle, requiring arginine and magnesium [144]

Arginine Turkey and pork are especially rich sources; also chicken, pumpkin seeds, soybean, butternuts, egg, peanuts, walnuts, split peas, mollusks, almonds, sesame seeds, lentils, fava beans, mung beans, pine nuts, beef, sunflower seeds, and white beans [111]

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