Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2016, Article ID 7357136, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7357136
Research Article

Schoolchildren with Learning Difficulties Have Low Iron Status and High Anemia Prevalence

1Medical Faculty, Department of Master’s Degree in Family Health, Federal University of Ceará, Sobral Campus, Av. Gerardo Rangel 100, 62.042-280 Sobral, CE, Brazil
2Medical Faculty, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil

Received 1 July 2016; Accepted 30 August 2016

Academic Editor: Phillip B. Hylemon

Copyright © 2016 F. P. N. Arcanjo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Assessment, Prevention and Control: A Guide for Program Managers, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
  2. B. Lozoff and M. K. Georgieff, “Iron deficiency and brain development,” Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 158–165, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. L. Beard and J. R. Connor, “Iron status and neural functioning,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 23, pp. 41–58, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Lozoff, G. M. Brittenham, A. W. Wolf et al., “Iron deficiency anemia and iron therapy effects on infant developmental test performance,” Pediatrics, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 981–995, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Lazoff, A. W. Wolf, and E. Jimenez, “Iron-deficiency anemia and infant development: effects of extended oral iron therapy,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 382–389, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Lozoff, E. Jimenez, and A. W. Wolf, “Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 325, no. 10, pp. 687–694, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Lozoff, E. Jimenez, J. Hagen, E. Mollen, and A. W. Wolf, “Poorer behavioral and developmental outcome more than 10 years after treatment for iron deficiency in infancy,” Pediatrics, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1–11, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. Brasil, Ministério da Educação. Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais (INEP), Censo Escolar, MEC/INEP/Deeb, Brasília, Brazil, 2006.
  9. Brasil, Ministério da Educação e do Desporto, and Secretaria de Educação Fundamental, “Parâmetros curriculares nacionais: adaptações curriculares,” Secretaria de Educação Fundamental, Secretaria de Educação Especial, MEC/SEF/SEESP, Brasília, Brazil, 1998.
  10. A. G. Dean, J. A. Dean, D. Coulombier et al., Epi Info, Version 6: A Word Processing, Database, and Statistics Program for Epidemiology on Microcomputers, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 1994.
  11. J. Y. Yager and D. S. Hartfield, “Neurologic manifestations of iron deficiency in childhood,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 85–92, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. P. S. Sachdev, T. Gera, and P. Nestel, “Effect of iron supplementation on mental and motor development in children: systematic review of randomised controlled trials,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 117–132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Logan, S. Martins, and R. Gilbert, “Iron therapy for improving psychomotor development and cognitive function in children under the age of three with iron deficiency anaemia,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD001444, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. C. McCann and B. N. Ames, “An overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral function,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 931–945, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Lozoff, “Iron deficiency and child development,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 4, supplement, pp. S560–S571, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Grantham-McGregor and C. Ani, “A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, supplement, pp. 649S–668S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. C. Radlowski and R. W. Johnson, “Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol. 7, article 585, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Lozoff, G. M. Brittenham, F. E. Viteri, A. W. Wolf, and J. J. Urrutia, “The effects of short-term oral iron therapy on developmental deficits in iron-deficient anemic infants,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 351–357, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Walter, I. De Andraca, P. Chadud, and C. G. Perales, “Iron deficiency anemia: adverse effects on infant psychomotor development,” Pediatrics, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Seshadri and T. Gopaldas, “Impact of iron supplementation on cognitive functions in preschool and school-aged children: the Indian experience,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 675–686, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Idjradinata and E. Pollitt, “Reversal of developmental delays in iron-deficient anaemic infants treated with iron,” The Lancet, vol. 341, no. 8836, pp. 1–4, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. A. Aukett, Y. A. Parks, P. H. Scott, and B. A. Wharton, “Treatment with iron increases weight gain and psychomotor development,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 849–857, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. E. Webb and F. A. Oski, “Iron deficiency anemia and scholasticachievement in young adolescents,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 827–829, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. S. Halterman, J. M. Kaczorowski, C. A. Aligne, P. Auinger, and P. G. Szilagyi, “Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States,” Pediatrics, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1381–1386, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. F. Lukowski, M. Koss, M. J. Burden et al., “Iron deficiency in infancy and neurocognitive functioning at 19 years: evidence of long-term deficits in executive function and recognition memory,” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 54–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. More, V. B. Shivkumar, N. Gangane, and S. Shende, “Effects of iron deficiency on cognitive function in school going adolescent females in rural area of central India,” Anemia, vol. 2013, Article ID 819136, 5 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. P. N. Arcanjo, V. P. T. Pinto, M. R. Coelho, O. M. S. Amâncio, and S. M. M. Magalhães, “Anemia reduction in preschool children with the addition of low doses of iron to school meals,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 243–247, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Benoist, E. Mclean, I. Egli, and M. Cogswell, Eds., Worldwide Prevalence of Anemia 1993–2005, WHO Global Database on Anemia, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
  29. D. J. Piñero and J. R. Connor, “Iron in the brain: an important contributor in normal and diseased states,” Neuroscientist, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 435–453, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus